SUBGENUS POLYANTHA (Pfitz) Brieger
Section Mastigopetalum
Hallier

This division of Karasawa and Saito (2) largely encompasses the Subgenus Anotopedilum of Pfitzer, Sections Gonatopedilum and Coryopedilum. Multi flowered inflorescences are produced on medium to large sized plants, which show light plain green foliage. Members of this group show a distinctive 'helmet' shaped lip.(91)

Cribb (105) places most of these plants within his Section Paphiopedilum, with five sections, for this group the Section Coryopedilum - including Paphiopedilum philippinense, randsii, sanderianum, kalopakingii, stonei, adductum, glanduliferum, rothschildianum and supardii. These plants have plain green strap like leaves and produce multiflowered inflorescences, with flowers which open simultaneously. The species have chromosome number of 2n = 26 (105)

14 species are included:-

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a. PAPHIOPEDILUM ADDUCTUM Asher
b. PAPHIOPEDILUM GARDINERI (Guillemard) Pfitz.
c. PAPHIOPEDILUM GLANDULIFERUM (Blume) Stein
d. PAPHIOPEDILUM PHILIPPINENSE (Rchb.f.) Stein
e. PAPHIOPEDILUM PRAESTANS (Rchb.f.) Pfitz.
f. PAPHIOPEDILUM RANDSII Fowl
g. PAPHIOPEDILUM ROTHSCHILDIANUM (Rchb.f.) Stein
h. PAPHIOPEDILUM SANDERIANUM (Rchb.f.) Stein
i. PAPHIOPEDILUM STONEI (Hook.f.) Stein
j. PAPHIOPEDILUM WILHELMINIAE L. Wms.
k. PAPHIOPEDILUM KOLOPAKINGII Fowlie
l. PAPHIOPEDILUM SUPARDII Braem and Loeb
m. PAPHIOPEDILUM GIGANTIFOLIUM Braem Bakler & Baker
n. PAPHIOPEDILUM INTANIAE Cavestro
O PAPHIOPEDILUM OOII Koopowitz
P. PAPHIOPEDILUM PARNATANUM Cavestro
Q. PAPHIOPEDILUM SCHOSERI Braem & Mohr

General

ALSO DISCUSSED - NOTE - other entries may be involved in addition to the one listsed.

PAPHIOPEDILUM DEVOGELII
PAPHIOPEDILUM ELLIOTTIANUM
PAPHIOPEDILUM LAEVIGATUM
PAPHIOPEDILUM ROEBELENII
PAPHIOPEDILUM TOPPERI
PAPHIOPEDILUM USITANUM

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a. PAPHIOPEDILUM ADDUCTUM Asher

Introduced into cultivation in 1933 from the Philippines, it grows at some 1200 metres above sea level in shade among rocks covered with dead and decaying leaves, where it is kept constantly wet. It requires moderately bright conditions, with only a brief rest period, appreciating plenty of moisture and light, in intermediate temperatures. It is not a difficult species to grow and flower. It needs some moss in the mix. It blooms on 2 to 3 year old growths, and must have several back growths to flower properly. (3) No description is available, although Birk (3) illustrates it. It was introduced into cultivation by Warne in 1933, after being originally found growing on an isolated mountain plateau. Its habitat lies at some 1200 metres altitude. Plants live in the shade amongst moss covered boulders with dead and decaying leaves. The species was first thought to be Paphiopedilum philippinense by Warne, then P. elliottianum by Fowlie. Refer to the section on P. rothschildianum. (17) Koopowitz 112 153notes Paphiopedilum elliotianum is a synonym. See Koopowitz 153 for a recent discussion on this matter.

P. adductum var. anitum described in 1998 is considered to be a slightly larger and lmroe darkly coloured form of adductum.153

Levy 115 notes this species has a large vertically striped dorsal sepal, with straight and pendulous petals. The grove in the pouch and its shape are quite distinctive. Its first hybrids were registered in 1989 with some hybridising.


b. PAPHIOPEDILUM GARDINERI (Guillemard) Pfitz.

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Described in 1887, Schelpe (16) reports it comes from Jobe Island of the north western coast of West Irian, although little other information is available. He states it comes from the same general area as Paphiopedilum praestans.


c. PAPHIOPEDILUM GLANDULIFERUM (Blume) Stein

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First described in 1848, (16) after being discovered in Dutch New Guinea, and named for its gland bearing petals. 105 . Schelpe notes a close similarity with Paphiopedilum praestans, and in fact has suggested these two may be synonymous. If this is the case, then the name P. glanduliferum would apply, as this name was applied earlier than that of P. praestans. Veitch in 1894, raised this possibility. Bechtel Cribb and Launert (8) state P. glanduliferum is a synonym of P. praestans. Fowlie 143 and Griesbach 144 discuss this issue also. Koopowitz 153 discusses this matter further and now consideres this to be a 'lost' species.

It is native of West Irian. Veitch (4) describes flowers that are 125 mm across, the dorsal sepal cream white, yellowish on the centre, the petals linear, ribbon like, 100-125 mm long, yellowish green with red brown veins, and with 8 to 10 prominent bearded warts on each margin towards the base. The pouch is pale yellow with red-brown margins.

The Handbook of Orchid Nomenclature and Registration (27) states that P. gardineri, P. praestans P. wilhelminiae are all synonyms of P. glanduliferum.

Levy 115 notes this has a dorsal sepal that is quite oval with very well defined deep purple stripes. The petals are pendulous and very twisted. The pouch is distinguished by its narrow appearance. It has been used in hybridising to make some attractive hybrids. Herbert 151 discusses the New Guinea habitat.


d. PAPHIOPEDILUM PHILIPPINENSE (Rchb.f.) Stein

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This is one of the more important species of this group. It is regarded by Cribb 105 as the most variable and widespread species of the Coryopedilum Section A large terrestrial, it grows up to 500 mm tall. Leaves are glossy green, 350 mm long, 40 mm broad. The inflorescence is 3 to 5 flowered, 200 to 500 mm tall. Flowers show a white dorsal sepal, striped brown-purple. The synsepalum is white with green veins. The petals are purple-red with a yellow base and pale green tips. The pouch is buff yellow with pale green-brown venation. (9) It is most closely allied to P. randsii and P. sanderianum.

This species was introduced from the Philippine Islands in 1864, by J.G. Veitch who had made an orchid collecting voyage there, although it had been described earlier (1862) from dried specimens. (4) It was discovered in the Guimaras Island, growing near the sea shore on the roots of Vanda batemanii etc.

Paphiopedilum roebelenii and P. laevigatum are considered synonyms. (8) Schelpe indicates that' this is a variable species with respect to the size, colouring and twisting and declination of the petals. (16) P. roebelenii was described by Reichenbach in 1883, its longer pendent petals being its distinguishing feature. It has been given specific rank a number of times, but Cribb 105 notes ‘I do not consider its petal attitude to be sufficient for its recognition at specific rank’. He has recommended that this plant be recognised at varietal level as P. philippinense var. roebelenii.

In addition to growing on Guimaras Island, it is also found on adjoining islands, and in North Borneo. It grows not only terrestrially on the forest floor in leaf mulch, and epiphytically on trees, but also in mosses on rocks, in bright but not direct sun. September to December (southern Hemisphere equivalent months) flowering, it prefers warm growing conditions, but can be grown cooler.

It is stated by Birk (3) to be an easy species to grow, appreciating some moss around its roots, and is tolerant of poor conditions in the pot. It can be top heavy after several seasons growth because of its large size, and should be potted in heavy containers if not suspended from the glasshouse roof. When dividing ensure each division three or more growths, as new growths may not develop a root system for a year or two (3).

In its native habitat humidity remains high all year, with average summer day/night temperatures of 31 and 20 degrees celsius, and with winters of 25 and 15.5 degrees celsius. Birk (3) states it comes from a widespread area in the Philippine archipelago, where there are a number of habitats differing principally in the amount of rainfall that occurs. Typically October November and December (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months) are hot, somewhat drier with clear skies for much of the time. Heavy rainfall from the south west monsoon occurs from late December, peaking in February and lasting to April. During May convectional rain occurs. The north east monsoon is experienced from July to September. The habitat never dries out, the 'dry' season being periods of reduced rainfall only.

Schaffer (9) states that 23 primaries had .been registered to 1976, 12 of which had received awards, but only 4 having done so in 'recent' years.

The Handbook of Orchid Nomenclature and Registration (27) notes that Cypripedium cannartianurn, Paphiopedilum laevigatum and P. roebelenii are all synonyms of this species.

Levy 115 notes P. philippinense has a white dorsal sepal with deep maroon stripes. The synsepalum is similar.. Petals and long and can be quite twisted. The heart shaped pouch is buff yellow, this colouration often passed on it its progeny. It ahs produced a number of hybrids. Paphiopedilum St Swithin being typical.


e. PAPHIOPEDILUM PRAESTANS (Rchb.f.) Pfitz.

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This attractive species, which is somewhat intermediate in character between P. stonei and P. rothschildianum, was introduced into European cultivation in 1886, and was formally described in that year. P. glanduliferum is shown as a synonym (8), although Schelpe’s (16) comments can be noted as indicated under that later species. The Handbook of Orchid Nomenclature and Registration (27) notes that for registration purposes Paphiopedilum praestans is correct not withstanding that the name is a synonym for P. glanduliferum.

Koopowitz 153 this a valid species as do other authors, although notes controversy exists regarding its correct name. P. striatum is considered to be a snuyonym fo this species. See 153 for discussion.

It grows some 500 mm tall, its plain green leaves rather fleshy, up to 300 mm long and 30 mm broad. The inflorescence is to 500 mm tall, and up to 5 flowered. Flowers can reach 100 mm long and broad. The dorsal sepal is light yellow with dark lines, petals yellowish-green with darker central lines, the lip pale green veined darker. Growing up to 1700 metres altitude, it is found on the islands north west of New Guinea and in west and central New Guinea, (8) in moss filled clefts or crevices on limestone cliff faces, in exposed locations. (3) Azadehdel and Mattes note this species grows 2 to 10 metres above sea level on the Island of Waigeo New Guinea, in contrast to the usually reported high altitude habitats. 113

Flowering November to December, and again in April May, it needs a brief winter rest, bright light, in intermediate to warm conditions. Naturally coming from close to the equator, the seasons show little variation, being marked by the variation in rainfall which depends on the monsoons. December to March December (southern Hemisphere equivalent months) is relatively dry, intermittent rains occurring. The remainder of the year receives heavy rainfall. Humidity is always high, with summer average temperatures of 30 degrees celsius during the day, 20 degrees celsius at night. Winter temperatures are some 3 to 4 degrees celsius lower. It is regarded as a difficult species to establish, and is almost impossible to do so if there are no roots on the division, although is easy to flower and grow once established. Preferring an open compost with moss, it blooms in the second year on the matured growths. (3)

5 primaries with this species have been registered to 1976, none of which have been awarded. (9)


f. PAPHIOPEDILUM RANDSII Fowl

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This species was discovered in 1968 by Mrs Patricia K. Manuel at Agusan on Mindanao in the Philippines. A medium sized plant growing either terrestrially or as an epiphyte, it produces a 3 to 5 flowered inflorescence. Each flower is large, with a white or pale greenish-white dorsal sepal, boldly lined with

maroon. The petals are pale greenish-white, striped maroon and the lip pale yellowish-green, veined darker green. (8) It is found growing in dense clumps, in shaded areas of moderately dense forest, its roots buried in decaying leaf mulch. It is found at an altitude of 500 metres above sea level. It f lowers best with high heat, high humidity and strong light. The natural habitat never becomes dry, humidity is high all the year, with summer average temperatures of 35 degrees celsius during the day, 18 degrees celsius at night. Winters average 24 degrees by day and 15.5 degrees celsius at night. (3)

Levy 115 notes this is only just started to by used in hybridising.


g. PAPHIOPEDILUM ROTHSCHILDIANUM (Rchb.f.) Stein

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This beautiful species, arguably the most handsome of the genus, and perhaps even of all orchids, was introduced into European cultivation in 1867 by F. Sander and Co. It was formally described in 1888 and was named in honour of Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild of Waddesdon Manor, Aylesbury, U.K., who was an eminent patron of horticulture at that time in England. (8) Some controversy exists, as Jean Linden claims to have imported it earlier, but his name P. neo-guincense was never validly published. (7,105)

Growing up to 550 mm tall, the plain green leaves are 400 to 600 mm long, 45 to 75 mm broad. The inflorescence, up to 450 mm tall, bears 3 or more flowers. The dorsal sepal of each flower is yellowish, with numerous longitudinal blackish stripes, with white around the margins. The petals are yellowish- green with dark longitudinal lines, showing dark blotches at the base. The lip is cinnamon with an ochre margin around the mouth.(8) Schmude (96) states that 3 to 4 f lowers are most commonly produced per inflorescence, but up to 5 to 7 f lowers can occur. Flowers have a natural spread of 240 to 340 mm. (96) Atwood 107 discusses the pollination of this species, suggesting the glandular hairs on the staminode mimic an aphid colony, the normal brood site of syrphid flies. The females deposit eggs on the surface, and when some fall onto the lip, fertilise the flower.

Asher (17) notes this species has of ten been confused with Paphiopedilum elliottianum, and that it does not come from New Guinea. It is found only in North Borneo, on Mount Kinabalu. Schelpe (16) states he has no doubt that P. rothschildianum and P. elliottianum are one and the same species, both having distinctive staminodes. Asher (17) discusses these two ‘species' in detail, in addition describing a new species P. adductum which had been thought to be P. elliottianum. The valid description of P. elliottianum is subject to some controversy, but dates from around 1888. Reichenbach distinguished the two species by P. elliottianum having a sharp bifid apicular (end) point to the staminode. P. rothschildianum is only found in Borneo and the plants of P. elliottianum have been collected in the Philippines. The later species is also said to have an underlying colour of ivory-white compared with yellow for P. rothschildianum. What is the true position regarding the three 'species' mentioned in Asher's article (17) is beyond the scope of this guide, although P. adductum is separately listed by Karasawa and Saito, and Birk. Asher's article is informative and the above comments bring to the attention of readers the names of closely related plants which may be seen in articles etc. P. elliottianum is not listed by Birk (3), although is by Asher (5). Fowlie (20) discusses this species further, together with other closely related 'species'. In this article, he also makes reference to another high elevation member of this section from New Guinea, previously named P. bodegomii, although Birk (3) states this plant is probably P. praestans var. kilbalianum, or plants exhibiting variability with the species P. praestans. Fowlie also suggests it may be a hybrid between P. rothschildianum and P. praestans, as both these species are known to have an overlapping natural range. Cribb 105 however, he believes the case for making P. elliottianum a separate species ‘does not withstand critical scrutiny’. He also notes this name has also been ascribed to Philippine plants correctly ascribed to P. adductum, although notes this has been taken up by many growers.105,106


Paphiopedilum Saint Swithin
a P. rothschildianum hybrid

Birk (3) notes P. rothschildianum flowers in October to December, or when growths mature. He notes it is an easy species to grow, but is sometimes difficult to flower, with cooling more important than withholding water in the initiation of the flowers. Many people divide the plant before it becomes established and has matured the growths. A well established plant will bloom 2 years from when the new growth is initiated, but a single division may take 4 to 5 years for this to happen. It should be potted in an open compost with some moss to retain moisture. It needs bright light but not full sun. With seedlings, grow them very warm and shaded until the plants are 100 to 125 mm across, then treat as mature plants. It requires intermediate temperatures. (3)

Bechtel (18) reports that following the original collections the particular requirements for the successful culture of this species where known. However, in the early part of the 20th. century much of that information was lost, and as people then grew the plant as they would the cool growing P. insigne, problems arose. The native habitat was not generally known until it was rediscovered in the 1950's, and not accurately described until the 1980's.

Fowlie (19) has reported a visit to Mt. Kinabalu, the home of this species. It is found living at some 450 to 900 metres altitude growing on steep cliffs, close to water. Plants receive bright reflected light. hey grow with their roots buried into leafy humus. During October, before the onset of the rains, temperatures can reach 35 to 40 degrees celsius during the daytime, with night temperatures falling to 15.5 degrees celsius, these being maintained during the flowering season. Rain increases and temperatures fall in November and December (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months), with comparatively heavy rains through to April. Winter (June and July) temperatures are quite cold, falling to 10-12 degrees celsius at night. This cooling appears critical to the initiation of the flowers, which show some 4 months later. Birk (3) notes the area is continually wet, with short periods of dryness only, and with humidity always remaining high.

Schmude(92) lists an extensive bibliography concerning this species. He also discusses seed germination.

Bechtel (18) recommends for successful culture 17 to 19 degrees celsius minimum and 30-32 degrees celsius maximum temperatures - basically in the intermediate range, with bright light, similar to or only slightly less than cattleyas should be provided. He believes they should be in a potting medium similar to that required for cattleyas, which is very free draining. He suggests frequent feeding with stronger dilution fertilisers – 3/4 of the recommended rate instead of the 1/3 to 1/2 dilution rates usually recommended for orchids. Ample air movement is emphasised. He advises P. rothschildianum hybrids require similar conditions.

Interestingly, Fowlie (19) reports a plant grown by Baron Rothschild in 1930 which annually carried a dozen spikes, and 200 leaves. There is a challenge for those lucky enough to own one of these plants!!

Schaffer (9) notes Paphiopedilum rothschildianum (including P. elliottianum) has had 12 primaries registered. 15 crosses have been awarded, 12 of which are 'recent'.

For registration purposes (27) P. rothschildianum is the correct name for P. elliottianum, P. superbum and P. tretonense which are considered synonyms.

Levy 115 notes the dorsal sepal of Paphiopedilum rothschildianum is slightly larger than the synsepalum. Both have longitudinal purple stripes. The petals are almost horizontal. It has a unique knee bent staminode. It has a boot shaped rosy or maroon red pouch. It has produced a number of swell known hybrids.


h. PAPHIOPEDILUM SANDERIANUM (Rchb.f.) Stein

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Schelpe (16) reports this plant was first collected in North Borneo in 1866 by Ignatz Forstermann for the English nursery of Frederick Sander. It is illustrated by Fowlie (21), who states it is similar to P. roebelenii but with a distinctive staminode. Birk (3) confirms it grows on limestone rocks in leafy detritus, and occasionally on trees. It is January to March flowering, requiring a brief winter rest. It needs warm temperatures and moderately bright light. In its native North Borneo, humidity is constantly high, and constantly wet, the 'dry' period only being slightly drier. The period from May to August is subject to warm moist winds, with intense rainfall. September is drier and clear. October is the hottest month, with day/night temperatures of 30/18 degrees celsius, and is also the driest. Convectional rains occur from November, and by the end of the month there is the south west monsoon with heavy rainfall, but which is less predictable, and lasts to mid April (southern Hemisphere equivalent months). June and July are cool, with 25.5 degrees celsius day and 15 degrees celsius night temperatures. February to April is squally and thunderous. Culture as for P. rothschildianum appears appropriate. It has always been a rare orchid, and Cribb 105 notes it had probably disappeared from orchid collections by the start of the 20th Century.

Fowlie 124 notes this species enjoys two distinctive habitats both on limestone and dolomite within the Gunong Mulu National Park of Sarawak. The first habitat is on limestone cliffs over rives in bright positions, loosely rooted in limestone. This is at an altitude of some 100 to 500 metres altitude. The second habitat is on limestone buttresses at a similar altitude, growing closely associated with a jewel orchid. The areas are fully exposed to the winter monsoon in May June and July Southern Hemisphere equivalent months, which gradually subside in August. After a brief drier interlude, in September and October, convectional storms occur in November and December, with a second slightly dry period at the end of December to March. It is a very high rainfall area. The plants are subjected to a cold shock during June and July, initiating the flowers. Strong air movement is a feature of the habitat. It is recommended that the plants be grown at a 30 degree angle in the posts ensure no water remains in the growths, similar to their habit in nature.

The Orchid Advocate (94) reports two forms of this species. One 'latifolium' has wide leaves, but the flowers of each are similar. It is understood that prices of up to US $5000 have been paid for newly collected plants, so this is not a plant for beginners!!!!

This species was considered extinct for many years (9) but despite this 8 primary crosses have been registered, 6 of which have been awarded, 3 of which were FCC's from the Royal Horticultural Society of England. It has recently been refound. 105

Levy 115 bears an acute dorsal sepal with deep maroon stripes. The synsepalum is similar but smaller. The sepals deeply angle over the pouch. The petals are distinctive, pendulous and twisting and reaching up to a metre in length. Some old hybrids have been made plus some recent breeding.

Kramer discusses the fascinating pollination mechanisms of this species. 128 as well as some other members of this group.


i. PAPHIOPEDILUM STONEI (Hook.f.) Stein

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A terrestrial species growing some 600 mm tall, it produces a 3 to 5 flowered inflorescence which grows up to some 600 mm tall. Each flower is up to 100 mm long, the dorsal sepal white with three to five purple stripes. The petals are yellowish with elongated red-brown spots towards the base, the tip third crimson- brown. The lip is dull rose, veined darker, whitish below. This beautiful species was first collected by Sir Hugh Low in Borneo, plants being sent back to the UK Clapton, London nursery of Low and Co. It was first flowered in Europe in the collection of John Day, the plant being named after Mr Stone, gardener for Day. (8)

The most prized of all paphiopedilum species is probably the spectacular wide petalled form of P. stonei, the variety platytaenium. This arose from a single plant which flowered first in 1867 in Day's collection. This variety has been shown to be a mutation, a desirable one, of the typical species. (8) Fowlie (22), from Frederick Boyle's The Woodland Orchids records an interesting story of the search for this variety in its natural habitat.

Appreciating bright conditions, this species needs warm growing conditions. It flowers in November to January on second and third year growths, requiring a rest in September with cooler and drier conditions for successful bud initiation. Birk states it is an easy species to grow and flower. An open, moisture retentive potting mix is required.

It is naturally found growing on limestone rocks, in accumulated humus or on mosses on tall trees, at some 550 to 1000 metres altitude. Its natural habitat in Sarawak is subject to the north-east monsoon from the end of May to August (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months), with warm wet conditions. September is drier and clearer. October is the warmest and driest, temperatures averaging 30 degrees celsius during the day and 18 degrees celsius at night. Rainfall increases in November, occurring in a broken nature through to mid April. June and July are the coolest months averaging 25.5 degrees celsius during the day and 15 degrees celsius at night. The region is continually wet and humidity always remains high. (3)

20 primaries have been registered up to 1976, but only 'recently' have awards been given. Phillips (79) has discussed this species, especially its hybrids.

Levy 115 describes an erect to semi erect plant with a white dorsal, streaked dark maroon. The petals are straight, border bowlegged and spotted. Some good hybrids have been produced.


j. PAPHIOPEDILUM WILHELMINIAE L. Wms.

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This species was collected by Mr L. J. Bass on the third Richard Archbold expedition to the Snow Mountains of Netherlands New Guinea. It was named in honour of Wilhelmina, the queen of the Netherlands. It was found occasionally growing as a terrestrial on long deforested slopes at an elevation of some 1700 metres above sea level. It is said to be closely related to P. glanduliferum (23), and for registration purposes (27) is considered a synonym of that species, although is separately listed by some American botanists. This ‘species’ is a smaller plant with the growths borne on short but obvious rhizomes, and its smaller flowers lack marginal warts on the petals. 105 This plant is considered only a variety of Paphiopedilum glanduliferum by Cribb 105 as he believed it shows minor morphological differences, and its habitat is very similar to P. glanduliferum. Plants of this variety have been introduced into cultivation either as P. bodegomii, a name never validly published, or as P. gardineri. 105

Koopowitz 112 states that he believes there are sufficient differences for P. wilhelminiae to be separated as a species separate from P. gardineri. Fowlie 143 agrees, and lists P. bodegomii as a synonym, as does Griesbach 144.

Herbert 149 found wilhelminiae growing on a steep bank or on rocks, growing without protection for the full sunlight. He believes it is a separate species.


k. PAPHIOPEDILUM KOLOPAKINGII Fowlie

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In the Orchid Digest in 1984 106 Fowlie noted that Liem Khe Wie (A. Kolopanking) of Simanis Orchids in east Java acquired a new species, which was subsequently named in his honour. Obtained from the Barito River of central Kalimantan several years earlier, it was first flowered under cultivation in 1982 and it was realised that its flower rivalled Paphiopedilum rothschildianum. It is a semi terrestrial, growing between stones over steep river gorges at around 650 metres altitude.

Braem and Mohr describe 137 a plant they called P. topperi, named in honour of Richard J. Topper of North Carolina, who succeeded in flowering this plant the first time in cultivation. It came from Kilimantan Borneo, growing some 1100 metres above sea level. Koopowitz 112 believes it is more correctly Paphiopedilum kolopakingii.

Koopowitz 153 now notes ther are two forms of this speices, one with a primarily green background to the flower,a dnt the other with a more straw yellow pigmentation. He notes the greener forms are more common in Europe and the gellow forms found more in the USA. He notes there is little evidence recommending these two forms should be considreed separately. .


l. PAPHIOPEDILUM SUPARDII Braem and Loeb

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This species is closely related to Paphiopedilum rothschildianum. It was originally discovered by Dr Eduard de Vogel in south east Kalimantan in 1972, and introduced into cultivation in 1983. The name P. devogelii has been widely used, but is not valid. It grows as a lithophyte some 600-960 metres above sea level .105

m. PAPHIOPEDILUM GIGANTIFOLIUM Braem Bakler & Baker

Another newly discovered species, similar to but larger than P. sanderianum. The name refers to the wide and long leaves.

n. PAPHIOPEDILUM INTANIAE Cavestro

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Similar to the above, this is another newly described species. It is native of Sulawesi, with a striped dorxsal similar to philippinense. Some 8 flowers are carried on the inflorescence. 153

O PAPHIOPEDILUM OOII Koopowitz

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From Borneo, this very tall multiflora species with a striped dormal is similar to glanduliferum.153

This is one of the recently discovered species.


P. PAPHIOPEDILUM PARNATANUM Cavestro

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A newly described species from the Philippines, similar to schoseri 153. It us sometimes called P. usitanum


Q. PAPHIOPEDILUM
SCHOSERI Braem & Mohr

This is a species not fully understood, but is thought to be either a natural hybrid or similar to the newly described P. parnatanum. Koopowitz discusses 153 this in some detail


General

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This section contains the multiflowered green leaved paphiopedilums, with perhaps the most spectacular flowers of the genus. They are all comparatively large growing plants as compared to many of the genus, requiring warm conditions but with some winter cooling and dryness to ensure flower bud initiation. The general habitats are subject to heavy rainfall, with moist very humid conditions experienced for most of the year. in the main they require an open potting mix, but one which always retains moisture. The inclusion of some moss is therefore usually beneficial.

Flowering usually occurs on two to three year old growths. Also, roots do not usually form immediately on the new growths, and they should therefore not be removed until they are 2 to 3 years old, and only when it is ascertained that a separate root system has in fact formed.

Van Delden has discussed (24) hybridisation with some of the species of this section.

Nash (78) notes that these plants are easy to grow, but are hard to f lower. He concludes that while flowering can be irregular and patience is required, the wait can be well worthwhile. He notes that many of the hybrids are easier to flower than the species.

Azadehdel (81) notes that in 1972 E. de Vogel discovered in Kalimantan a new species which is similar to P. praestans. It is said to be much larger in size than that species, with 7 to 9 flowers. The colours are said to penetrate all through the petals and sepals, and that it has a different staminode. It has been called P. devogelii, although has now been formally described in Die Orchidae 102 as Paphiopedilum supardii Braem and Loeb. Asher 103 also discusses this species in detail.

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Site established 9th May 1998
Paphiopedilum series first uploaded 8th December 1999