SUBGENUS COCHLOPETALUM Hailer

6 species are included:-

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a. PAPHIOPEDILUM CHAMBERLAINIANUM (O'Brien) Stein

b. PAPHIOPEDILUM GLAUCOPHYLLUM J.J. Smith

c. PAPHIOPEDILUM MOQUETTEANUM (J.J. Smith) Fowl.

d. PAPHIOPEDILUM VICTORIA- MARIAE (Rolfe.) Hook.

e PAPHIOPEDILUM LIEMIANUM M Wood and Taylor

f. PAPHIOPEDILUM PRIMULINUM M. Wood and Taylor

General

This aggregation of plants is characterised by the petals being twisted over and over in the way of certain elongated spiral sea shells might appear. The staminode is also distinctive. Flowers are borne in succession, one failing off while the tip develops another bud month after month. Foliage is obscurely mottled and appears faintly chalk dusted. (5)

This grouping remains somewhat confused and the correct status of certain species is still debated. M. Wood, in the English magazine, The Orchid Review placed:-

Paphiopedilum chamberlainianum and its variety liemianum Fowlie;

P. glaucophyllum and its variety moquettianum;

P. primulinum and its alternative colour form purpurascens

all as subspecies of one widespread species Paphiopedilum victoria-regina (Sander) M. Wood. He considered the name P. victoria-mariae to he a synonym of P. victoria-regina. This treatment reflects the close affinities of each of these taxa. (8)

 

Asher notes (52) that the Karasawa and Saito (2) revision of the genus paphiopedilum recognises 6 taxa as

follows.-

Paphiopedilum victoria-regina (Sander) Wood

P. liemianum (Fowl.) Karasawa and Saito

P. liemianum var. primulinum (Wood and Taylor) Karasawa and Saito

P. chamberlainianum (O'Brien) Stein

P. glaucophyllum (J.J. Smith) Pfitz. and

P. glaucophyllum var. moquettianum J.J. Smith.

 

Cribb 105 recognises the following presenting a different view from previously 54:-

Paphiopedilum glaucophyllum

P. Liemianum

P. primulinum

P. victoria-mariae and

P. victoria-regina.

Two extreme views therefore exist concerning this grouping of plants.--

I. The section eliminated and its members reduced to a single species P. victoria-regina with numerous subspecies, a morphological variety, and an altered coloured form.

Wood (53), Cribb, (54) and the Handbook of Orchid Nomenclature and Registration.(27) take this view.

2. The section elevated to a subgenus consisting of 4 distinct species with two morphological varieties and one colour form.

Karasawa and Saito (2) and subsequently Cribb in his later book 105 (5 species) recommend this approach.

Asher presents an analysis of this problem (52), and commenced detailed chromosome analysis has been undertaken to try and sort out the difficulties. In this review we will list the species as shown by Karasawa and Saito. (2)

Cribb 105 presents an interesting discussion in his book on this issue, noting that Paphiopedilum victoria-mariae has 30 2n chromosomes; victoria-mariae (chamberlainianum) 34; glaucophyllum 36, 37; moquetteanum 34; liemianum 32; and primulinum 32 . It is generally agreed that the form and variations between the species are small but are consistent, and that they grow over distinct geographical areas.

The Handbook of Orchid Nomenclature and Registration notes that in their opinion Paphiopedlium victoria-regina is the correct name, with the following given as synonyms for that species. Those marked * have been accepted for hybrid registrations.

* Paphiopedilum chamberlainianum

* P. glaucophyllum

P. liemianum

P. moquettianum

* P. primulinum

P. victoria-mariae.

a. PAPHIOPEDILUM CHAMBERLAINIANUM (O'Brien) Stein

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In 1982, in the same advertisement in The Gardeners’ Chronicle Frederick Sander described two plants Cypripedium victoria-regina and C. chamberlainianum. The first plant was fully described, but the later was only briefly discussed. It was therefore considered that the description of C. chamberlainianum was inadequate for valid description and that the epithet ‘victoria-regina’ should take precedence over chamberlainianum because of its more detailed description, and Cribb now believes P. victoria-regina should be the correct name for this species. Cribb 105 states that the description of C. victoria-regina given by Sander fits exactly the species widely known and grown as P. chamberlainianum. He has retained the name by which it is widely known and grown, but notes you should be aware that this nomenclature is not strictly correct. Koopowitz 153 agrees this should be considered a synonym for victoria-regina, although Braem, Bakler and Baker do agree.154

Pasphiopedilum chamberlainianum var. flavum

This is a terrestrial species, growing up to or over 500 mm tall. The green, faintly mottled leaves, are up to 450 mm long and 100 mm broad. The many flowered (up to 30) inflorescence is up to 600 mm tall. The flowers, which individually open in succession, are showy, 75 mm tall and 80 mm broad. The dorsal sepal is greenish to cream-white, striped deep brown longitudinally, its base purple spotted. The synsepalum is greenish-white. Petals are creamy-white with purple markings, the lips pink. The lip is pink but is heavily spotted light purple. (8)

Native of Sumatra, this unusual species was introduced into cultivation by Frederick Sander, and was first described in 1862 by James O'Brien in the British magazine 'The Gardener's Chronicle’.

Fowlie (55) notes this species was first collected by Micholitz for Frederick Sander a short distance inland from Padang on the south central coast of western Sumatra. He notes that these plants were different in certain details from other plants which would later be known as Paphiopedilum victoria- mariae and P. liemianum, the most marked distinction being the very peculiar bracts which protect the developing flower buds.

This species was named in honour of Sir Joseph Chamberlain, the eminent politician and orchid grower. (8) Flowering is initiated throughout the year after a short period of rest, but is heaviest during September to November (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months). Coming from Padang and Gunong Marapi of Sumatra, it inhabits limestone cliff faces in fully exposed places facing west. Seeds germinate in rnosses in water seepages or solution pits. The habitat is subject to the south east monsoon from December to April, with periodic rainfall, but very high humidity. Temperatures during the winter range from 22 to 15.5 degrees celsius. The north west monsoon lasts from May to September, with heavy rains. September to October are the hottest months, temperatures averaging 29 degrees during the day, 18 degrees at night. (3)

An easy species to grow, it puts up with a wide range of environmental conditions, but prefers intermediate to warm temperatures, in moderately bright light. It is a rewarding plant to grow, blooming continuously from the same stem for many months, and also multiplies rapidly. (3)

Fowlie (53) reports on a visit to its natural habitat at Bukit Tirnei - meaning 'high hill' in Sumatra. The altitude ranges from 600 to 900 metres, the climate being 'almost perennial spring like'. This species remained at low elevations, while the closely related Paphiopedilum victoria-mariae occurs higher, in a quite contrasting habitat, at an altitude of 1900 to 2100 metres above sea level.

Growing on limestone cliff f aces near running creeks, and in water seepage zones, it sought thick pads of humus and leaf detritus which had accumulated against tree roots. While growing in limestone, Fowlie notes they should not be cultivated on limestone chips, as the cooler water of our temperate climates would allow greater dissolution of the limestone particles, possibly furnishing toxic levels of calcium to the plants. Naturally it receives bright but not direct sunlight. (53)

Paphiopedilum chamberlainianum var. liemianum is listed as a variety of this species,(8) being discovered by J. A. Fowlie in 1971 (56). Karasawa and Saito (2) have raised this variety to full species rank. This 'species' differs from P. chamberlainianum by having differently shaped leaves, darker green or mottled above, and purple spotted below, which are up to 200 mm long and 65 mm broad. (8)

Fowlie has described its habitat in northern central Sumatra. Between 2500 odd metre high volcanoes are a series of interlocking 900 to 1200 metre rather steep hills. From these are a number of steep limestone bluffs. P. liemianum grew on semi vertical rocky walls where moisture from above, trickling down, allowed the development of thin pads of moss, in which the species germinated. The growing plants send their roots out some 450 mm or more, fastening lightly to the weathered limestone. It was found at 875 to 1050 metres altitude, with the best and strongest plants around the 1000 metre level. Paphiopedilum tonsum grew in the same area, but at a slightly higher altitude, near the ridge crests in very deep pads of humus. P. tonsum grew in the moss with P. liemianum lithophytically on the surrounding rocks. The species retained their identity by flowering at different times of the year.

Paphiopedilum liemianum var. primulinum (Wood and Taylor) Karasawa and Saito is considered a morphological variant of P. liemianum in spite of the radically different foliage type and clearly different but nevertheless similar flower morphologies. (52) It is listed separately by Birk (3) but with a question mark. This was thought to have formed close to the prime habitat of the species when a chance seeding on to outcrops of volcanic rocks occurred. This produced an inbreeding colony of plants which became isolated from the general stock. This colony underwent a number of colour changes as a result of tremendous interbreeding. Two sub variants where produced - flavum Fowl. which is deficient of anthoeynanin (red) pigments, and one lacking these entirely - flavescens. (5)

Birk (3) notes 'Paphiopedilum primulinum, was introduced into cultivation by Liem in 1972, coming from the Lueser Mountains of Sumatra. It is September to December flowering, naturally growing in a humus rich topsoil over heavier ground. It occurs in a high rainfall, high humidity locality.

Paphiopedilum chamberlainianum has made 29 primaries up to 1976, 7 of which have received 'recent' awards. (9)

Paphiopedilum victoria-regina var kalinae (Braem( Koop is closely related to victoria regina but also has similarities with liemianum. Cribb does not recognise this variety 153


b. PAPHIOPEDILUM GLAUCOPHYLLUM J.J. Smith

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This species was discovered in east Java in 1897 by B.J.C. Verhey. It flowered in the Buitenzorg Botanic Garden in 1899 when it was described the following year by J.J. Smith. 105

A terrestrial, it also grows up to or over 500 mm tall. The 300 mm high inflorescence bears several flowers, each of which open in succession. Flowers are superficially similar to Paphiopedilum chamberlainianum. The dorsal sepal is green with a white margin, brown shaded at its base, the veins darker coloured. Petals are white heavily spotted with purple. The lip is pink but with darker mottling. This species is native of Java, being described by the Dutch botanist 9.J. Smith in 1900 from a specimen ollected by Verhey that year near Turen in Central Java. (8) It grows in bright light in exposed locations on steep to mostly vertical, soft and crumbly limestone. Roots grow into mosses and leafy humus, in water seepage zones. Its habitat lies at an elevation of over 300 metres. (3)

It is September to November flowering (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months) , but this can occur throughout the year if a rest is provided when the growths mature. (3)

Comber (57) states it is a commonly cultivated species, because it is a lowland plant, and re-establishes easily in the lowlands were most growers live. Its prime habitat is a steep escapement with many small streams and water seepages, at an elevation of 300 metres. This area has been stripped of plants, with the result that it is nearly extinct in nature.

The relationship between glaucophyllum and ‘moquetteanum’ has been subject to many debates. See the discussion under P. moquetteanum. Cribb 105 treats moquetteanum only as a variety of glaucophyllum

28 primary hybrids have been registered to 1976 with 6 awarded. (9)


c. PAPHIOPEDILUM MOQUETTEANUM (J.J. Smith) Fowl.

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Paphiopedilum glaucophyllum was originally found by the village of Turen, south cast of Mount Serneru in east Java. In 1905, on the south coast of Java, some 700 kilometres away, some similar plants were collected. As these differed slightly from P. glaucophyllum J.J. Smith named them P. glaucophyllum var. moquetteanum in 1906. For a long time it was lost until rediscovered by 3.B. Comber. Fowlie, in 1980, raised it to full species rank, although as with the other species of this subgenus, its correct designation is still questioned. (58) It was named in honour of Mr J.P. Moquette who went to Java in 1873, becoming manager of the sugar plantations, and active in agriculture and archaeology. The species is found growing at some 150 to 300 metres altitude. Its restricted habitat has been devastated by commercial collectors since its rediscovery around 1975. Its habitat consists of vertical walls of limestone, 30 to 100 metres high, in one of the wettest places of Java. Humidity always remains around 85 to 1 00 %. The species grows in mosses on the limestone cliffs. The plant grows down the cliff face, with the crown off the vertical ensuring drainage and eliminating any chance of crown rot from water trapped in the leaves. Light is somewhat dim on the cliffs. (58)

September to November flowering (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months), its flowers open in succession ensuring it is in flower for a long period of time. It likes intermediate to cool temperatures. Birk (3) notes it rains all year in its habitat. The Idryest' period lasts from October to April with frequent but short lived showers. The rest of the year is subject to the south west monsoon, with more prolonged and heavier precipitation. Summer high and low temperatures average 29.5 and 20.5 degrees celsius, winters 26 and 18 degrees celsius. (3)

Cribb 105 treats this plant only as a variety of Paphiopedilum glaucophyllum.


d. PAPHIOPEDILUM VICTORIA- MARIAE (Rolfe.) Hook.

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This is again a similar species to the other plants in this group which was first described in 1896. It was initially collected by Mr Wilhelm Micholitz in 1891, while travelling for the English nursery of Frederick Sander, England. The collector first heard about the location of a 'new' lady slipper species from a Mr Schluechter, who was a bookkeeper at a local coffee plantation, and had to pay him 500 guilders to reveal its actual location. It was originally named Paphiopedilum victoria-regina. One year later Mr Sander renamed it P. victoria-mariae, as on the day Frederick Sander bloomed a plant, the Princess Victoria-Maria (who later became Queen of Great Britain), and the Duke of York, announced their engagement. Because of its long usage this later name has been retained. (59)

September to November flowering (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months), but also throughout the year, it needs a brief rest when growths mature. It appreciates intermediate temperatures. It is native of Mt. Talak Mau, from north Sumatra, Indonesia, where it grows on limestone borders and on exposed cliff faces, but not in direct sunlight. Plants are found in water seepages or in deep pads of moss and humus at an altitude of some 1800 metres on west or west facing slopes. It is also found in moderately dark places as a terrestrial, growing in leafy humus. Living close to the equator, there is little variation in day length, the seasons therefore marked by variations in rainfall. The 'dry' season with the south east monsoon starts in December and lasts to April, with frequent rains. In May the north west monsoon starts, with heavy and more frequent rains, which last until September. During most of the year there is heavy cloud cover. Summer temperatures range from 27 to 14.5 degrees celsius, with a 4.5 to 7 degrees celsius drop in winter. (3) It naturally grows in south and central west Sumatra at an altitude of 1500 to 2000 metres above sea level. 105

Jahn (59) who has observed these plants in their natural habitat, confirming plants live the dampness growing in very thick pads of moss.

Fowlie (82) discusses the early history of this species, together with details of a visit to its habitat. He notes that it grows on a tall cliff of andesite lava at an altitude of 1800 to 2050 metres above sea level. The cliff interrupts the flow of moisture laden air currents, which condense on its flanks, and there is a constant trickle of moisture down the cliff face. This trickling moisture permeates the roots of attached pandanus trees, aroids and many other species of plants attached to the cliff, which in turn provides a means of attachment for the mosses, which grow lithophytically up to some 300 mm in thickness. The lower layers of these mosses are rotten but the upper layers are alive, and the roots of the lady slippers are attached through them and along the cliff for some 1300 to 1500 mm from the mother plant, affixed to a tree root or the rock. The habitat is always wet, with mists condensing and moving all the time. The light is extremely dim. He also notes the foliage of the plants is long and thin, not adapted to live in semi-zerophytic or desert conditions as is Paphiopedilum chamberlainianum.

There has been confusion regarding the name of this plant, with P. victoria-regina sometimes applied. However, that name applies m ore correctly to the plant widely known as P. chamberlainianum. 105 Cribb, however, has retained this as a separate species, not withstanding its close affinity to P. victoria-regina (P. chamberlainianum).

Because of its rarity Schaefer notes (9) only 7 primary hybrids have been registered to 1976, with none awarded.


e PAPHIOPEDILUM LIEMIANUM M Wood and Taylor

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See the description for Paphiopedilum chamberlainianum for a discussion of this plant.

This species has distinctive foliage, the leaves marked beneath with dense rows of small dark maroon purple spots. It was originally considered a subspecies of Paphiopedilum chamberlainianum but its distinctive leaves in particular have given it specific rank. 105 It has very restricted distribution in nature, ;limited tot he extreme north of Sumatra where it grows on the roots of trees in limestone ravines at 600 too1000 metres altitude. 105

Fowlie has described its habitat in northern central Sumatra. Between 2500 odd metre high volcanoes are a series of interlocking 900 to 1200 metre rather steep hills. From these are a number of steep limestone bluffs. P. liemianum grew on semi vertical rocky walls where moisture from above, trickling down, allowed the development of thin pads of moss, in which the species germinated. The growing plants send their roots out some 450 mm or more, fastening lightly to the weathered limestone. It was found at 875 to 1050 metres altitude, with the best and strongest plants around the 1000 metre level. Paphiopedilum tonsum grew in the same area, but at a slightly higher altitude, near the ridge crests in very deep pads of humus. P. tonsum grew in the moss with P. liemianum lithophytically on the surrounding rocks. The species retained their identity by flowering at different times of the year.

Paphiopedilum liemianum var. primulinum (Wood and Taylor) Karasawa and Saito is considered by them to be a morphological variant of P. liemianum in spite of the radically different foliage type and clearly different but nevertheless similar flower morphologies. (52) It is listed separately by Birk (3) but with a question mark. This was thought to have formed close to the prime habitat of the species when a chance seeding on to outcrops of volcanic rocks occurred. This produced an inbreeding colony of plants which became isolated from the general stock. This colony underwent a number of colour changes as a result of tremendous interbreeding. Two sub variants where produced - flavum Fowl. which is deficient of anthoeynanin (red) pigments, and one lacking these entirely - flavescens. (5)

Birk (3) notes 'Paphiopedilum primulinumwas introduced into cultivation by Liem in 1972, coming from the Lueser Mountains of Sumatra. It is September to December flowering, naturally growing in a humus rich topsoil over heavier ground. It occurs in a high rainfall, high humidity locality.


f. PAPHIOPEDILUM PRIMULINUM M. Wood and Taylor

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This was first described in 1973 from a plant flowered in the U.K. It grows over a small area on Gunong Leuser in the north of Sumatra, at an elevation of 400 to 500 metres altitude. 105

Paphiopedilum liemianum var. primulinum (Wood and Taylor) Karasawa and Saito is considered by them to be a morphological variant of P. liemianum in spite of the radically different foliage type and clearly different but nevertheless similar flower morphologies. (52) It is listed separately by Birk (3) but with a question mark. This was thought to have formed close to the prime habitat of the species when a chance seeding on to outcrops of volcanic rocks occurred. This produced an inbreeding colony of plants which became isolated from the general stock. This colony underwent a number of colour changes as a result of tremendous interbreeding. Two sub variants where produced - flavum Fowl. which is deficient of anthoeynanin (red) pigments, and one lacking these entirely - flavescens. (5)

Birk (3) notes Paphiopedilum primulinum is September to December flowering (southern Hemisphere equivalent months), naturally growing in a humus rich topsoil over heavier ground. It occurs in a high rainfall, high humidity locality.

Cribb 105 has discussed the controversy surrounding the naming of this species. He considers it is as distinct from P. liemianum as it is from other species in the complex, and therefore deserves specific rank.


General

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This grouping of plants is a very confused one, with differing views as noted regarding the true status of the species.

They are attractive plants. Because the flowers open in succession, they remain in flower for a long period of time. From very wet habitats, they require frequent watering all the year, but especially during the summer growth period. Some warmth is especially required during this period for maximum growth.

P. yapianum is listed (96) in this group, although is not now considered to be a valid species. Fowlie (100) discusses and analyses the circumstances surrounding this plant and its similarity with P. Jogiae.



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Site established 9th May 1998
Paphiopedilum series first uploaded 8th December 1999