Section Barbata

SUBSECTION CHLORONEURA Hallier

Cribb 105 places these plants in his Subgenus Paphiopedilum Section Barbata. He places 24 species in this section, distinguished usually by one flowered inflorescences and tessellated leaves. Chromosome numbers vary from 2n = 28-34.


7 species are included:-

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a. PAPHIOPEDILUM ACMODONTUM Schoser ex. Wood.

b. PAPHIOPEDILUM FOWLIEI Birk

c. PAPHIOPEDILUM JAVANICUM (Reinw. ex. Blume) Stein

d. PAPHIOPEDILUM PURPURASCENS Fowl.

e. PAPHIOPEDILUM URBANIANUM Fowlie

f. PAPHIOPEDILUM VIRENS (Rchb.f.) Stein

g. PAPHIOPEDILUM SCHOSERI Braem and Mohr.

General


a. PAPHIOPEDILUM ACMODONTUM Schoser ex. Wood.

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This is a medium sized terrestrial species. The leaves are 180 mm long and 40 mm broad, the upper surface tessellated light and dark green. The erect single flowered inflorescence grows up to 250 mm tall. Large flowers are produced, the dorsal sepal being white, heavily flushed with pink-purple and lined with purple-green. The synsepalum is white lightly flushed with purple, lined green and purple. The petals are greenish-white with a purple tip half, lined dark green with raised purple spots near the edges below. The lip is pale olive green.

Native of the Philippines, it was referred to by G. Schoser in the Proceedings of the 6th. World Orchid Conference in 1971, but was not validly described until 1976. (8) although Cribb 105 notes it was discovered some 20 years previously in the Philippines.

August to October flowering (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months), it needs a July rest for flower production. It needs intermediate temperatures in moderately bright light. An easy species to grow and flower, it also likes moss at its roots, and benefits from copious watering during. its summer growth period. (3)

Its specific habitat is unknown, other than it is said to come from the Visayan area of the Philippines. (3)

No primaries obviously have been registered to 1976 because of its date of introduction. (9)

b. PAPHIOPEDILUM FOWLIEI Birk

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Birk reports (45) that J. A. Fowlie, the then editor of the American magazine, The Orchid Digest, had come across an entry in E. D. Merrills 'An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants' of 1924, in which it is noted Oakes Ames had examined a species of paphiopedilum collected by Foxworthy on Victoria Peak on Palawan Island of the Philippines. That plant was not formally described as a new species until recollected by Mattes (46) in 1979. It is noted as having close affinity to Paphiopedilum lawrenceanum and Paphiopedilum hennisianum. Growing as a semi-terrestrial, its green leaves are 100 to 140 mm long and 25 to 35 mm broad, distinctly tessellated with a similar but darker colouration. The inflorescence grows 200 to 280 mm high. The dorsal sepal shows 12 to 19 longitudinal lines, very similar Paphiopedilum lawrenceanum. The petals emerge at right angles, then are strongly pendulous, and are green in colour with 8 to 12 darker green longitudinal lines, suffused purplish on their tips. The margins are marked by 11 to 15 hairy warts. (8)

Paphiopedilum fowliei was distinguished from P hennisianum, but Cribb 105 believes that the minor variations warrant varietal status of P hennisianum only, although subsequently has changed his mind and agrees species status is correct. 153.

October to December flowering (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months), it needs a slight July/August rest to flower. It appreciates intermediate temperatures in bright growing conditions. It is said to be an easy species to grow and flower. Found near Brooke's Point on Palawan Island, it grows at an altitude of 700 to 900 metres in leaf mould and detritus on limestone rocks, in exposed bu no fully sunlit positions. Its native habitat is subjected to the north east monsoon from May to August, which brings heavy rainfall. July and August are cooler, with temperatures of 25.5 degrees celsius during the day, and 15 degrees at night. In late September it is hot and dry, with relatively clear skies and irregular rainfall, which occurs up to mid November. By the end of that month, the south west monsoon arrives, which affects the climate up to mid April, bringing heavy but less predictable rains. Summer temperatures reach 29.5 degrees celsius during the day, and 18.5 degrees at night. (3)

 

c. PAPHIOPEDILUM JAVANICUM (Reinw. ex. Blume) Stein

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This species was first mentioned by the Dutch botanist C.G.E. Reinwardt in 1829, after being found on the mountains of Eastern Java, and was first formally described in 1850. It was not introduced into European cultivation until Thomas Lobb forwarded plants in 1840.(4)

A terrestrial, it grows up to 400 mm tall. The tessellated leaves are 200 mm long, 50 mm wide. The one or occasionally two flowered inflorescence grows 250 mm high. The flower, up to 100 mm long, has a pale green dorsal sepal which shows deeper green veins, and is whitish towards its apex. The petals are pale green, spotted with minute black warts on the basal two thirds. The tip one third is dull purple. The lip is brownish-green, paler below, the side lobes pale green spotted purple. (8)

This somewhat variable species is said to be easily grown and flowered being reputedly adaptable to different cultural conditions May flowering (southern Hemisphere equivalent months), and again in November, it needs a rest for flower bud initiation. It also needs intermediate temperatures in moderately bright light. It comes from Mount Karang to Mount Andjasmoro in Java, Indonesia, Bali Flores. On lava, it grows in thick pads of humus in wet spongy ground in bright light, below saplings and boulders, and on boulder studded cliff faces, at an altitude of 900 to 1200 metres. The area has a saturated atmosphere for most of the year. Habitat high and low average temperatures are 27 and 17 degrees celsius during the summer, and with winters 22 and 12 degrees celsius. (3)

Fowlie (47) describes a visit to this species natural Javan habitat on Mount Andjasmoro Volcano. Mats of humus 150 to 600 mm thick occur between boulders 1 to 3 metres in diameter, under a tree canopy. The ground was wet and soggy. This species grew in bright light. He notes plants were found up to 1800 metres altitude in the particular habitat studied. Rain falls for most of the year. The south cast monsoon occurs from December to April with heavy frequent rains. May to October were subjected to even heavier and more prolonged rainfall. (3)

7 primary hybrids with this old species had been registered to 1976, none of which had been awarded. (9)

Hugh Low made the original collections of P. virens on Mount Kinabalu. The variability of P. javanicum covers P. virens, and those are therefore considered to be within the P. virens type..153

d. PAPHIOPEDILUM PURPURASCENS Fowl.

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This species was described in 1974 from an earlier collection (5). An avid orchid collector Sheila Collenette was approached by the Government to make an orchid collecting trip to the interior of Mount Kinabalu to collect lady slippers for the then forthcoming visit by the Queen. After the visit, the orchids were sold to defray her costs. One of the plants was recognised as a new species, and was named by Fowlie after it found its way to the Los Angles Arboretum. It has not been discovered again. (34) Cribb 105 states it is a synonym of P. javanicum var. virens. Koopowitz does not recognise it as a valid species 153 revering to it as Paphiopedilum primulinum var. pruparascens, a coloured form only.


e. PAPHIOPEDILUM URBANIANUM Fowlie

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In 1976, a commercial orchid nursery in the Philippines was presented with a new species of paphiopedilum amongst a collection of Paphiopedilum argus. The source of the plants could not be identified, and it was some five years before the same collector brought in more plants. The nursery involved was run by Mrs Jacinta Urban, after whom the species was named by J. A. Fowlie in 1981. (48)

Native of Mendoro Island in the Philippines, it flowers in June to October. It requires a winter drop in temperatures of 5.5 to 8 degrees celsius below the summer temperatures accompanied with reduced watering for 3 to 4 weeks in June for flower bud initiation. It appreciates intermediate to warm conditions, in moderately bright light. It is regarded as being an easy species to grow, flowering regularly, the flowers themselves said to be somewhat variable. It grows naturally on the jungle floor, in thick pads of humus and leaf detritus amongst rocks, at an altitude of 450 to 750 metres above sea level. Its native habitat is subject to the north east monsoon which occurs from July to September , (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months) with heavy but irregular rainfall. October is the hottest month with temperatures averaging 29 degrees celsius during the day, and 18 degrees at night. The south west monsoon arrives in December, peaking in February, and lasting to April, with very heavy rainfall. May and June are warm and moist with steady winds. Nights are usually clear, with temperatures averaging 23 degrees celsius during the day, and 15 degrees celsius at night. Humidity is always high. (3)

It is similar to the others in this group, flowering November to January, and again in June and July. It needs low temperatures and some dryness for flower bud initiation, in moderately bright light and intermediate temperatures, with cooler temperatures at nights for optimum growth. From a high rainfall habitat, it needs constant moisture. (3)

f. PAPHIOPEDILUM VIRENS (Rchb.f.) Stein

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This species was originally described in 1863, based on a specimen flowered in the collection of Mr Day of Tottenham England. There was said to have been a single specimen imported by Hugh Low and Co. from North Borneo in 1858. (49)

It is native of Mount Kinabalu, Sarawak, Eastern Malaysia, and the general habitat description under Paphiopedilum rothschildianum should be noted. (3)

Fowlie (49), in a visit to its habitat, notes it grows on the western side of Mount Kinabalu, from 1350 to 1750 metres altitude It occurs in pockets in humid steep gulches where there are tall 30 to 50 metre high trees with butress like trunks. P. virens sprouts n lithophytic mosses on weathered limestone or on the moss covered trees. The plants send their roots down into the deep beds of mosses. It grows in close association with a jewel orchid - Anoectochilus species. He reports its habitat is very similar to that noted for Paphiopedilum javanicum (47) and has suggested that these two species may be derived from a common ancestor. Cribb 105 notes Hugh Low made the original collections of P. virens on Mount Kinabalu. He believes that the variability of P. javanicum covers P. virens, and those are therefore considered to be within the P. virens type..

Koopowitz 112 believes this species falls within the concept of P. javanicum, and therefore reduces it to a synonym of that species.

Birk (3) notes that the natural habitat of this species has been destroyed over much of its range.



g. PAPHIOPEDILUM SCHOSERI Braem and Mohr.

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First described in 1988 it was first mentioned at the 9th World Orchid Conference by Dr Gustov Schoser, and was named in his honour. It grows as an epiphyte in leafy humus on the Indonesian Island of Bacan at an altitude of 1200 to 13 metres above sea level. Koopowitz 112 believes this is a natural hybrid between P. acmodontum with either P. urbanianum or P. javanicum. He notes that P. bacanum is a synonym.

General

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All these species come from high rainfall areas, and therefore require constant watering, especially over the summer vegetative growth period, when warmth is also necessary. Liking moderately bright light, their beautiful leaf tessellations are, however, emphasised by additional shade, and often red and green colouration in the flowers will be improved as well. They like a moisture retentive potting mix containing some moss, but free drainage must always be provided. Stale conditions must never be allowed to develop.



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Site established 9th May 1998
Paphiopedilum series first uploaded 8th December 1999