SECTION BARBATA Kraenzlin

This section largely encompasses the Section Pharcopetalum of the Pfitzer classification (5) although Karasawa and Saito have re-arranged this section. Pfitzer's Pharcopetalum Section was distinguished by the variable number of raised warty spots on the petals, and lack of marginal hairs. The foliage of the plants he included is usually markedly tessellated. (5) Asher notes that the Pharcopetalum Section with their warty adorned edges to the petals represents a very loose conglomeration of species which show only that feature in common, and really are not all derived from a common ancestor. There are some distinct groupings, but not all species fit in with these groupings.

Cribb 105 places these plants in his Subgenus Paphiopedilum Section Barbata. He places 24 species in this section, distinguished usually by one flowered inflorescences and tessellated leaves. Chromosome numbers vary from 2n = 28-34.

6 species are included:-

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a. PAPHIOPEDILUM ARGUS (Rchb.f.) Stein
b. PAPHIOPEDILUM BARBATUM (Lindl.) Stein
c. PAPHIOPEDILUM CALLOSUM (Rchb.f.) Stein
d. PAPHIOPEDILUM HENNISIANUM (Wood) Fowl.
e. PAPHIOPEDILUM LAWRENCEANUM (Rchb.f.) Stein.
f. PAPHIOPEDILUM SCHMIDTIANUM Kraenzl.
g. PAPHIOPEDILUM THAILANDENSE Fowl.
h. PAPHIOPEDILUM POTENTIANUM Gruss and Roth
I. PAPHIOPEDILUM VINIFERUM Koop and Haseg

Also mentioned - there may be multiple entries.

Paphiopedilum nigritum
Paphiopedilum sriwaniae
Paphiopedilum sublaeve
(Rchb.f.) Fowl
Paphiopedilum birkii
Paphiopedilum fowliei
P
. X. nigritum
(Rchb.f.) Pfitz



Subsection Barbata

Cribb 105 places these plants in his Subgenus Paphiopedilum Section Barbata. He places 24 species in this section, distinguished usually by one flowered inflorescences and tessellated leaves. Chromosome numbers vary from 2n = 28-34.

 

a. PAPHIOPEDILUM ARGUS (Rchb.f.) Stein

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A terrestrial species, it grows up to 450 mm tall. The light and dark green tessellated leaves are up to 160 mm long, and 40 mm wide. The single flowered inflorescence grows up to 400 mm tall. The flowers are up to 75 mm long, showing a whitish dorsal sepal, with green stripes. The synsepalum is paler veined. The petals are white with green veins, marked with dark purple spots and warts. The lip is dull brownish-purple above, pale greenish-brown below, with the side lobes pale purple, spotted deep purple. (8)

This species was discovered by Gustav Wallis in 1872 in Luzon, the principal island of the Philippine group, and was introduced into European cultivation by the firm of games Veitch and Sons immediately afterwards. It was first flowered in Europe the following year. The warty eye like spots on the petals, forming one of its most striking characteristics, suggested the specific name. Argus, of Greek mythology, was a monster, all seeing because he had 100 eyes.(4)

It naturally occurs at an 'altitude of 1200 to 1700 metres growing in thick mosses at the bases of tree trunks, or in bamboo thickets. Its restricted range only extends over an area of 80 by 240 kilometres. (3)

It is September and October flowering (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months), after a brief winter (June) rest with reduced watering and lower temperatures. It prefers cool to intermediate temperatures. It likes moss in the potting media and a fresh compost at all times. It grows and flowers easily. Its native habitat is subject to a cool winter monsoon from the north east with heavy rainfall from June to August. In September and October the weather is warmer and drier, with average diurnal temperatures of 33 and 18 degrees celsius. November and December are clear, with only occasional rains. In late December the south west monsoon arrives bringing periods of heavy rainfall, which peaks in February. April is drier, followed by convectional rains lasting to May. Winter temperatures average 18 degrees celsius during the day, and 4.5 degrees celsius by night. Humidity is always high. (3)

Fowlie (38) reports on a visit to this species confined habitat in the central Philippines. It was found just below the ridge tops, amongst stunted trees some 7 metres high, in bright light, growing amongst mosses on the older trees. The moss and leaf detritus mats were some 250 to 375 mm thick. The altitude was between 1200 to 1400 metres, where winter temperatures fell to 3.3 degrees celsius, rising to 28 degrees celsius in the hottest months of September and October

The ‘species’ Paphiopedilum sriwaniae Koop. is considered a synonym for P. argus. 112

27 primaries have been registered to 1976, only 5 of which have been awarded, the latest of which occurred in 1902!

b. PAPHIOPEDILUM BARBATUM (Lindl.) Stein

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One of the most popular and attractive species, it naturally grows terrestrially up to 360 mm tall. Its dull mottled leaves, somewhat thin in texture, are 100 to 200 mm long, and 20 to 30 mm wide. The one or occasionally 2 flowered inflorescence grows up to 250 mm tall. The f lowers are up to 80 mm in diameter. The dorsal sepal is white or pale green, marked with 1 5 longitudinal stripes which are green at their base, grading to purple towards the apex. The petals are brownish-green at their base, purplish towards their tips. Their upper margins show a few black hairy warts. The lip is deep brownish- purple, paler below. The side lobes are purple, with some small purplish warts and spots. (8)

It was discovered by Hugh Cumming on Mount Ophir, near Malacca, on the Malay Peninsula in 1840, specimens being sent to Messrs Loddiges nursery in the United Kingdom where it was flowered for the first time in Europe in 1841. Three years later Thomas Lobb made large collections and it therefore became generally available quickly to European growers. The name ‘barbatum' - bearded - refers to the hairy shining warts which border the upper edges of the petals. (4)

Birk notes it is native of Penang, Gunang Boer to Gunany Ophir, on mountain sides in Malaya (3) and Peninsular Thailand. (8) It grows in moist shady valleys in mountains on granite boulders covered by moss, or in mossy places on sandy or peaty ground, at an altitude of 700 to 1200 metres. (8) Plants are not found in bright light. (3) Naturally, the area is subject to the north east monsoon from late May (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months) with hot dry winds and almost no rainfall. During this period, the creeks dry up, but water seeps from the ground, and there are heavy nightly dews. Humidity is always high. Convectional rains commence in September to October, with December and January somewhat drier. The south west monsoon deluges the habitat from February to mid May. Summer temperatures average 29 to 24 degrees celsius, winters 21 to 15.5 degrees celsius. June and July, and again December and January flowering, it needs a brief rest in May and October. It grows well in cool to intermediate temperatures. It is regarded as being an easy species to grow, but does not like excess salts in the potting media, or one which has broken down.

26 primaries have been registered to 1976, 13 of which have been awarded, but only 2 'recently'. It was one of the parents of the first paphiopedilum hybrid ( x P. vinosum = P. Harrisianum) made in 1869 and was also one parent of the first paphiopedilum to be awarded (x Paphiopedilum philippinense = P. Selligerum) which received a First Class Certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society in 1876. (9)

Paphiopedilum nigritum, described in 1882, is believed by Cribb 105 to be P. barbatum.


c. PAPHIOPEDILUM CALLOSUM (Rchb.f.) Stein

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This species is closely related to Paphiopedilum barbatum, but that species has smaller, darker flowers, with deflexed petals. Growing up to 450 mm high, its leaves are up to 250 mm long and 50 mm broad, and pale green in colour, with a few darker mottlings. The one and occasionally two flowered inflorescence is up to 380 mm high. The showy flowers display a white dorsal sepal, which is veined dark green at its base and is purple shaded and lined above. The petals are green, lined darker green, and with their tip third rose-purple. The upper margin has some black warts. The lip is dark bronze, the side lobes green with large black warts. Whereas P. barbatum's petals droop only slightly, P. callosum's petals spread at 45 degrees below the horizontal. (8)

Paphiopedilum subleave, thailandense, and callosum

This species was discovered by M. Alexandre Regnier of Paris, in Thailand and Indo China, and was introduced into European cultivation by him in 1885, but with very little background information. (4) The original plants from mountains near Bangkok in Thailand had their petals sharply bent down. Fowlie (40) states the very best forms with brightest green petals which are more outstretched and with rounder flowers come from Cambodia.

It is native of central and eastern Thailand, and the Loei Province of Cambodia, growing in cool, mist shrouded forests characterised by periodic cloud cover and very strong winds. It grows mostly as a terrestrial, its roots imbedded in detritus and decaying leaf mould on the forest floor. (3)

It flowers in August and September (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months) on mature growths after a June rest. It is one of the easiest species to grow and flower. It makes numerous new growths each year, rapidly reaching specimen size. (3) It prefers intermediate temperatures. Its habitat is subject to a climate similar to that described for P. barbatum. Diurnal winter temperatures range from 20 to 7 degrees celsius, summers from 32 to 18 degrees celsius. Humidity is very high all year. (3)

35 primary hybrids have been registered to 1976, with 12 awarded. Paphiopedilum Maudiae, the cross of P. callosum with P. lawrenceanum, was the favourite, winning 26 awards. Originally made in 1900 by Charlesworth in England, it still retains its deserved popularity. (9)

Paphiopedilum sublaeve (Rchb.f.) Fowl. is considered a subspecies of P. callosum by Birk (3), although is separately listed by Asher (5) as coming from Kedah Peak, Western Malaysia, and at Hat Yai in Thailand. It was originally described as Cypripedium (now Paphiopedilum) sublaeve in 1888. (5)The Handbook of Orchid Nomenclature and Registration (27) lists P. sublaeve as a synonym of P. callosum.

H.G. Reichenbach described P. callosum var. sublaeve. Cribb 105 notes the plants recently imported from peninsular Thailand and variously named in the trade as P. callosum, P. barbatum, P. callosum subsp. sublaeve, P. sublaeve and P. thailandense all agree with the type specimens of P. callosum var sublaeve.

The plant named by the American Ray Rands, Paphiopedilum birkii is now considered to be Paphiopedilum callosum var. sublaeve. (3)

Paphiopedilum schmidtianum was described in 1902 from material collected off the Thailand coast. The description agrees with P. callosum found on the same island, and therefore Cribb 105 considers that it is that species.

var. potentianum looks like callosum but lacks warts and has hairs around the opening of the lip. The few plants seen lead Koopowitz 153 to agree with Cribb to retain this as a variety of callosum.

d. PAPHIOPEDILUM HENNISIANUM (Wood) Fowl.

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There are many different forms of this variable species which was introduced by Hennis to cultivation in 1969. (3) Cribb 105 discusses aspects of its naming. Native of the Philippines, it flowers in September to November after a rest in July. It needs intermediate to warm temperatures in moderately bright light. It blooms freely, and the tall flower stems may droop in areas with insufficient light. It grows in a high rainfall habitat, and therefore needs plenty of water all the year, with moss in the mix.

It grows naturally in deep beds of rnosses and leaf detritus. Warm heavy monsoonal rains are naturally experienced in May and June (Southern Hemisphere equivalent months). From July to September, rainfall is reduced, and October and November are drier. From December to April there is very heavy rainfall. Summer diurnal temperatures average 29/18 degrees celsius, with winters 24/15.5 degrees celsius. (3)

Paphiopedilum fowliei was distinguished from this species, but Cribb 105 believes that the minor variations warrant varietal status of this P hennisianum only.

No primary hybrids had been registered up to 1976. (9) Asher (5) illustrates this species in his article.

e. PAPHIOPEDILUM LAWRENCEANUM (Rchb.f.) Stein.

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Paphiopedilum lawrenceanum is one of the most important breeding paphiopedilums notable for its large deeply coloured flowers and large flat dorsal sepal. 105

It was discovered by F.W. Burbidge in 1878, during an orchid collecting trip he made for J. Veitch and Sons, the English nursery. It was named in honour of Sir Trevor Lawrence, President of the Royal Horticultural Society of the United Kingdom, a noted orchid grower.

This terrestrial species grows 400 mm high, producing leaves up to 220 mm long and 50 mm wide. The inflorescence grows up to 300 mm tall, producing one or rarely two f lowers, which are up to 100 mm broad. The dorsal sepal is white flushed green at its base and bearing 11 prominent green to purple longitudinal stripes with shorter ones in between. The petals are pale green at their base, grading to purplish-brown on their tips. Each margin bears 5 to 10 blackish warts. The lip is more or less purple blushed, tinged with brown above. (8)

It is native of the Lawas River area near Miringit in North Borneo (Sabah) where it grows at some 300 to 450 metres altitude in shady forest in humus and leaf detritus, and also on moss covered boulders. (3)

September to, October flowering, it needs low September temperatures with reduced watering for flower bud initiation. It appreciates intermediate temperatures in medium to bright light. It is an easy species to grow and flower. Water heavily when in growth. Extra moss helps any plant in poor condition. (3) Birk states there have not been any recent importations of this plant, and that its habitat is not known other than from the descriptions of the old collectors. It has hybridised with P. virens in nature, and therefore it is assumed the habitats overlap and the description of that species habitat can be referred to. Asher (9) states that it has also been found recently in P. hookerae collections. Cribb 105 notes it is not that common in nature. Small flowered plants of this species have been introduced under the incorrect name of P. nigritum 105

32 primary hybrids have been registered to 1976, 15 of which have been awarded. It is regarded as one of the most successful breeders. (9)

P. X. nigritum (Rchb.f.) Pfitz. once thought to be a species in its own right and is listed and illustrated as such by Asher (5), is now considered to be the natural hybrid between P. lawrenceanum and P. virens. The Handbook of Orchid Nomenclature and Registration (27) states this is a synonym of P. lawrenceanum. It originally appeared in a shipment of P. virens and P. dayanum and was described in 1882, with its habitat stated to be Mount Kinabalu in North Borneo.

 

f. PAPHIOPEDILUM SCHMIDTIANUM Kraenzl.

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This species was first described in 1899-1900. Fowlie (39) notes it was named after a Dane, Johs. Schmidt, who found it while exploring the Koh Chang (Elephant Island) region of the upper Gulf of Thailand, close to the Cambodian border.

First described in 1901, Pfitzer, in his 1903 revision of the genus paphiopedilum, reduced it to a variety of P. callosum. Some modern botanists have attributed Kraenzlin's name of this species to a Kah Chang variety of P. callosum, as that species is found in the adjacent mountains of Cambodia. Fowlie states that the variety from there does not have the sharply turned down petals said to be a feature of P. schmidtianum.

A recent search completed by Fowlie and others on the island involved failed to find this species, and therefore it is regarded as lost.

Paphiopedilum schmidtianum was described from material collected off the Thailand coast. The description agrees with P. callosum found on the same island, and therefore Cribb 105 considers that it is that species.

 

g. PAPHIOPEDILUM THAILANDENSE Fowl.

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This is an intermediate variety not yet formally described. . Fowlie (40) has suggested 'intermediate' species form (see following comments) as it is similar to P. barbatum from Western Malaysia, and is often labelled as such by flower exporters. He states its affinity lies with P. sublaeve. The Handbook of Orchid Nomenclature and Registration (27) states they consider this name is a synonym of P. callosum.

Cribb 105 notes the plants recently imported from peninsular Thailand and variously named in the trade as P. callosum, P. barbatum, P. callosum subsp. sublaeve, P. sublaeve and P. thailandense all agree with the type specimens of P. callosum var sublaeve. He does not agree with the concept of ‘intermediate’ species discussed under P. callosum


h. PAPHIOPEDILUM POTENTIANUM Gruss and Roth


This plant is based on a single cultivated specimen.It is describd as a 'brown callosum' 153, and is treated as a variety of that species.


I. PAPHIOPEDILUM
VINIFERUM Koop and Haseg

This plant has been long in cultivation under the name P. callosum 'JAC' 153 although Cribb consideres it only a variety of that species.


GENERAL

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All of the plants in this grouping appreciate intermediate temperatures and moderately bright light. They need a brief winter rest with lower temperatures and a period of reduced watering. They should be watered freely when in active growth.

Fowlie (40) notes that the species of this section (which he describes by the Pfitzer name of the Section Pharcopetalum) extend from the south west tip of Western Malaysia (Singapore) to east of Bangkok in Thailand and through to Cambodia. They vary considerably as one progresses throughout the ranges of their habitats. The actual habitats range from a low of 150 metres above sea level on the west coast of the Penang Island, to the usual range on the mountain highlands in the 450 to 750 metre altitude zones of the interiors, but which in Cambodia extends to 1200 metres altitude. In the main they like the very wettest districts in the mountains, facing the sea in the path of the cooler moisture laden cloud masses coming from the oceans.

A number of clear species can be identified P. callosum from Thailand and P. barbatum from Mount Ophir, 160 km from Singapore.

 

Between these two extremes, confusion occurred when new species were discovered. There are rugged mountains, interspersed and disected by low river valleys. Often the species intermediate in form were given varietal names of the two species at either pole of their range. eg. P. callosum var. sublaeve described in 1908 was also described as P. barber warnerianum by Warner. Fowlie has also suggested to avoid confusion, these intermediate plants should not be given subspecies names in recognition of their being geographic races, but that they should be recognised in their true nature as intermediate species. Travelling north from P. barbatum on Mount Ophir, P. sublaeve grows on Kedah Peak and at Hay Yan in Thailand with P. thailandense further north, and P. callosum in Thailand and Cambodia. Fowlie believes that originally a single species existed along the Peninsular, and that when the climate was cooler, it grew at lower altitude. With the climate becoming warmer, and with the glacial melting causing the rise in the general sea level, the intervening lowlands were flooded, and the species survived only in the highlands. The species then did not grow over a continuous habitat but were confined to pockets. he genetic isolation of the pockets allowed the gradual differentiation and development of the species, and the intermediate 'species' now recognised by Fowlie. H.G. Reichenbach described P. callosum var. sublaeve. Cribb 105 notes the plants recently imported from peninsular Thailand and variously named in the trade as P. callosum, P. barbatum, P. callosum subsp. sublaeve, P. sublaeve and P. thailandense all agree with the type specimens of P. callosum var sublaeve. He does not agree with the concept of ‘intermediate’ species

 

Distributed through the general region are some Spathopetalum species, Paphiopedilum johorensis, P. appletonianum and P. wolterianum, although these loose groupings are separate. There are some known natural hybrids between these two sections. Within the same general region the Spathopetalum section P. wolterianum occurs at high elevations of the coastal mountains of Cambodia, just south east of Trat, Thailand. P. appletonianum originates from Laos. The Barbata Section (Fowlie's Pharcopetalum Section) P. callosum is an inhabitant of the same region, but at lower levels, with the result that the natural hybrid of P. callosum x P. appletonianum = P. siamense, can logically occur. P. siamense was first described by R.A. Rolfe in 1889 from plants imported by M.J. Garden of Paris, collected from the vicinity of Bangkok. A number of subsequent collections were also made in 1890 and 1895. (41)



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