3. SUB GENUS JENSOA
This is a terrestrial subspecies, characterised by the presence of 4 pollinea and distinctive callus structure, amongst other points.
3. a Section Jensoa
This is closely related to the Section Maxillarianthe. The leaf numbers, and physical details of the plant identify these plants.
3. a. I Cym ensifolium (1) Sw
This species was originally described as far back as 1753 by Linneaus, based on a specimen brought in Canton China. It was noted that at that time that it was cultivated in local houses for its scent, as is also done today in many Asian countries. It is said to have been in cultivation in China and Japan for over two thousand years, prized for its shape and the perfume. The variants that lack red pigment in the flowers are highly valued, being described under a number of names. There are also a number of variants with variegated leaves, the names 'setsugetsu', 'hohrai' and 'gyokuryu' being applied to these variants in common usage. There is an extensive geographical range, and two variants are recognised by Du Puy and Cribb. Further taxonomic study may clarify this variable species.
Cym ensifolium is a short to medium sized terrestrial species, with small pseudobulbs 30 x 15 mm, often inconspicuous, occasionally subterranean, small, bearing 2 to 4 leaves, which range from 290 to 940 mm long. The scape is 150 to 670 mm long, slender to medium, produced from the base of the pseudobulb, with 3 to 9 flowers on the apical third. The flowers are 30 to 50 mm across, often strongly scented. The petals and sepals are straw yellow to green, with 5 to 7 more or less obvious longitudinal red or red-brown veins, the petals often with a stronger central stripe and red-brown spots and blotches towards the base. The lip is pale yellow or green, occasionally white, the side lobes streaked red, with a red margin, the mid lobe with red blotches or transverse spots.
Its extensive distribution is from Sri Lanka, south India, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Ryukyus, Indo China, Thailand, west Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, New Guinea and the Philippines. It is a terrestrial in lightly shaded, broad-leaved forest, often in damp situations. It is usually flowering from mid winter to mid spring, although in equatorial regions flowering is reported to be sporadic throughout the year,
There are two recognised subspecies of Cym ensifolium.
a. Subspecies ensifolium
This is distinguished by having leaves that are arching, usually less than 500 mm long, usually with an entire margin. The petals and sepals are almost equal in breadth. It is a small clump forming plant, with the flower spike usually held clear of the foliage and has usually up to 9 flowers. The flowers are 35 to 40 mm in diameter, with drooping lateral sepals. The sepals and petals are straw yellow to light brown in colour, with a strong central stripe of red-brown, and several weaker stripes often only distinct towards the base. Found in China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands, and the Philippines. It is said to be widely distributed in China, where it is found between 500 and 1000 metres altitude, but probably also occurs at higher altitudes. It flowers in the autumn and early winter.
b Subspecies haematodes
This subspecies is characterised by almost erect leaves, which are usually longer than 500 mm., and which usually show a serrated margin. The petals are broader than the sepals, and the mid lobe of the lip is triangular to narrowly oval in shape, with an undulating margin, and finely spotted with red.
This is commonly a strong plant, usually larger than the subspecies ensifolium. The flower spike is characteristically weak, bearing up tot 8 flowers, but usually fewer. These are about 30 to 35 mm across, with almost horizontal spreading lateral sepals. The sepals and petals are pale straw yellow or light brown I/O green in colour, usually with about five red lines over the veins. The petals are broader than the sepals. The lip is small, often with a triangular mid lobe, which is strongly bent back. It is distributed from Sri Lanka, south India, Thailand, West Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo and New Guinea
3. a. II Cym munronianum King and Pantling
First collected by Pantling in the Teesta Valley in Sikkim India, it was described for the first time in 1895. This is closely related to Cym ensifolium subsp, haematodes.
This is a medium sized terrestrial species, with small pseudobulbs 30 x 20 mm, bearing 3 or 4 leaves, which are 600 to 800 mm long. The scape grows up to 600 mm long, erect, usually bearing 8 to 13 flowers. Each flower is comparatively small, 25 to 35 mm across, scented, the tepals pale green to yellow to cream, with about five pale purple-brown broken longitudinal lines. The lip is pale yellow, the side lobes pink and streaked with red, with a solid red margin, the mid lobe blotched with red. Native of North East India, Bhutan, it is found at about 500 metres altitude. It flowers early winter to late spring.
3. a. Ill Cym sinense (Jackson)Wild
Cym. sinense hybrid (right)
This was one of the first Cymbidium species to be described (in 1802), although it had been grown in England from 1793.
It is a medium sized terrestrial with pseudobulbs 30 x 20 mm. 2 to 4 leaves are usually produced on each pseudobulb, which grow 400 to 1030 mm long, dark green in colour. The scape is 400 to 800 mm long, erect, robust, bearing 8 to 26 flowers on the top half, above the foliage. Each flower is about 50 mm across, strongly scented. The sepals are usually purple-brown, sometimes very dark The petals are slightly paler, often showing darker veins, occasionally the tepals coloured straw-yellow with dark red veins. The lip is cream or pale yellow, the side lobes streaked red with solid red margin, the mid lobe heavily spotted and blotched with dark red.
Native of Meghalaya, Burma, North Thailand, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Ryukyus, it prefers open to dense mixed or evergreen forest, in shade or semi shade. It flowers mid autumn to early spring.
3. a. Ill Cym kanran Makino
First described in 1902, its name means 'orchid which flowers in the winter'. It is closely allied to Cym sinense.
This species is a medium sized terrestrial with pseudobulbs 40 to 60 x 1. 5 mm. The 3 to 4 leaves are narrow, 300 to 900 mm long. The scape is 250 to 600 mm long, producing 5 to 12 rather widely spaced flowers held above the foliage. Each flower is 50 to 70 mm across, spidery in appearance, strongly scented. The colour is variable, but usually tepals are olive to clear green, with a short maroon stripe over the mid vein at the base, the lip pale yellow or pale green. The side lobes are streaked with red, with a solid red margin, the mid lobe spotted and blotched with red, with a narrow cream margin. Native of South China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Ryukyus, South Japan and South Korea, it grows between 000 to 1800 metres above sea level, in open hardwood forest, in shade. It normally flowers from late autumn to late winter.