"Individual and Collective Entrepreneurship Amongst Pakeha and Maori
of Aotearoa/New Zealand"

exerpt from a paper presented by Dr. Howard H. Frederick.
New Zealand Applied Business Education Conference 2002, September 2002
Related links:
Maori: the 'can-do' nation
Aotearoa beats United States in TEA

Largest-ever survey of indigenous entrepreneurship

Maori want control of own destiny

Individual entrepreneurs play a more dominant role in the New Zealand economy than in many other countries. Based upon GEM methodology, this paper explores varieties of entrepreneurship amongst the Päkeha (European New Zealanders) and Mäori (indigenous Polynesian inhabitants) of Aotearoa / New Zealand. [...]

According to the adult population survey, in 2001 New Zealand had one of the world’s highest rates of total entrepreneurial activity. It also ranked world’s highest in the rate of female entrepreneurship and in business angel activity. Another of our findings was that New Zealanders across all ethnicities have the ability to be enterprising. Mäori are every bit as entrepreneurial as European New Zealanders. Thus we were interested in the extent to which existing social and cultural norms encourage entrepreneurship and how New Zealand entrepreneurship might differ by ethnicity. [...]

Survey results show that Päkeha fit the ideal type but Mäori do not. Mäori culture, according to this survey, does not stress materialism or individual accomplishment. Mäori entrepreneurs may stand out as deviations from the ideal type. This might find an explanation in the distinction between collective entrepreneurship and individual entrepreneurship. In other words, what we may have identified is that Päkeha entrepreneurship differ from Mäori entrepreneurship along the individualism-collectivism spectrum.

...there may be two types of entrepreneurship in New Zealand. There are the “rugged individualists” who pursue the Päkeha style of entrepreneurial firm and there are the “harmonious collectivists” who base their entrepreneurial aspirations upon the community aspirations of the group. [...]

They [Maori] were such successful entrepreneurs that they controlled a large share of the commerce throughout the country. Maori were involved in the export of produce to Australia and various other countries (Sutch, 1964) and to some degree Mäori entrepreneurial abilities were the subject of envy by Päkeha. Mäori were also fervent adopters of technology. Best known is the Mäori use of the muskets to the great cost of the settler forces. Less well known is the history of Mäori adaptation of European agriculture and shipping methods as well as their rapid adoption of books and use of publishing (Sinclair, 1959) (Dell, 1987) (Walker, 1986) (Firth, 1972). Mäori are so adept at technology that their rapid uptake has spawned the Mäori saying "Ka pu te ruha ka hao te rangatahi" (The old net lies in a heap while the new net goes fishing) (Smith, ).

For a copy of the paper contact Dr. Howard Frederick.


Subject: RE: paper "Individual and Collective Entrepreneurship Styles Amongst Maori and Pakeha

Date:  Wed, 16 Oct 2002 17:22:14 +1300
From:  "Howard Frederick" <>
To:   "'John Porter'" <>

Kia Ora, John:
Interested in your comments on this.  I've also attached a copy of my slides to it.