William A. Tiller, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Stanford University
Stanford, California 94305-2205


Results of three uniquely different experiments are provided, each providing robust correlates of subtle energy events manifesting in the physical band of reality. Taken together, the experiments support the postulate that subtle energy signals not directly observable by physical means do create a transduced signal at the magnetic vector potential field level of the physical realms. Within the concepts of our standard electrodynamics, the transduction of the subtle energy signals generates electric and magnetic signals that have observable physical effects. The experimental results are also suggestive that human intention when applied to unseen subtle domains is the effective driver of events seen in the physical domain.


Early in this century, medicine saw living organisms as operating via the following interaction/reaction equation:
Function <-> Structure <-> Chemistry

In keeping with this equation, human health was thought to depend on the integrity of the body structure. The integrity of the body structure depended on a relatively stable state of equilibrium (i.e., homeostasis) between the different but interdependent structural parts. In turn, homeostasis depended on a host of organic and inorganic chemicals. Whenever the body didn't function properly, structural defects arising out of chemical imbalances were blamed.

To cure this problem and restore the needed homeostasis of the body, prescriptions were ordered involving sophisticated chemical complexes at increasingly larger dosages in order to trigger the body's defense and repair mechanisms. This approach led to what can be called "chemical medicine" with its many strengths and weaknesses.
Later in the century, neuropsychiatry demonstrated that small electric currents between specific points in the brain gave rise to the same behavioral changes that were observed with the ingestion of certain brain-stimulating chemicals. Other researchers found that small electric currents can stimulate cells to regenerate, tissue to repair itself and fractures to heal. Although the use of x-rays and diathermy have a long history in medicine, recent extensions to MRI scans all tend to indicate that the earlier three-part equation (shown above) was incomplete.
In the light of the electric current effects, a four-part equation was presented, the fourth part involving electric and magnetic fields:
Function <-> Structure <-> Chemistry <-> Fields

The body's electric and magnetic fields provide the necessary conditions for homeostasis at the chemical level. Detection of imbalances at the electric/magnetic field levels would be an early warning factor of coming potential disruptions in the chemical homeostasis condition, and which, if unchecked, would eventually result in repercussions at the body's functional level.

Research and study of hypnosis and hypnotic affects revealed that the human body can exhibit truly remarkable feats of strength and endurance - attesting to an important linkage of body/mind, in which the mind can influence not only the body's structure and function, but also its chemistry and electric/magnetic fields.
Advancing research in psychotherapy revealed that certain chemical treatments induce specific mental states - while certain mental treatments influence specific chemical populations.
More recently, biofeedback techniques have shown that directed mind not only can control various autonomic body functions (such as skin temperature, pain, etc.) but can also repair the body.
Thus, a new five-part equation became necessary:
Function <-> Structure <-> Chemistry <-> Fields <-> Mind
Well-controlled, remote influence experiments with healers, and experiments with psychokinesis, clairvoyance, remote viewing, homeopathy and many other phenomena, indicate the existence of processes inadequately understood. The nature of these processes extends beyond conventional knowledge of the physical domains of nature, and appear to involve emotional, spiritual and other intangible qualities.
These qualities should also enter an extend form of the five-part equation presented above. However, since we presently do not have clear definitions of these different qualities, they might temporarily be put into the category of SUBTLE ENERGIES. Preliminary research data indicate that the subtle energies somehow influence the electric and/or magnetic fields of the body, and which influences have demonstrable effects on its structure, function, chemistry, and the mind. The SUBTLE ENERGIES can include emotional, mental and spiritual qualities, but appear to operate in connection with physically intangible factors that can be called ETHERIC.
These qualities should also be entered into the equation:

E/M Subtle

Function <-> Structure<->Chemistry<->Fields<->Energy
In conventional science, four forces are considered responsible for all observable phenomena in the universe:
The strong nuclear force;
The weak nuclear force;
The electromagnetic force: and
The gravitational force.

These four forces characterize the purely physical domain very well. Thus, the "subtle energies" referred to above, and the subtle forces/effects they generate, are not necessarily weak - but rather constitute that large body of elusive energies and forces beyond the four accepted by today's physical science.

Let us now refer to three very different experiments to see how some of these unseen energies can produce strong physical correlates under certain special conditions, so that significant manifestations are observable by our physical instrumentation.

Three Experiments In Which Subtle Energy Activity Was Observed

Experiment A: Some Evidence of Subtle Energies on Photographic Film

During the early 1970s, a gentleman named Stan came to see me about some photographs he had taken. At the time, his camera was a simple Kodak with a plastic lens, and the film was Kodak Kodacolor.
Strange lights and illuminations appeared on the photos. Stan indicated much the same thing happened when other people gave him their cameras to take pictures. He first thought he was a camera klutz. But he eventually realized that the film phenomena correlated with special inner states he could sense and which he felt "energized" the camera. dak which processed the photographs. In addition to the expected physical scenes, remarkable optical effects were imprinted on the photographs.

The special occasions when the optical effects were most probably to be obtained were (a) at spiritual rock concerts; (b) at religious shrines; and (c) at high-energy metaphysical lectures.
The special inner states involved the following physiological symptoms. Whenever he would sense a particular feeling in his 7th cervical plus 4th thoracic vertebrae and snapped a picture, he would invariably find some anomaly present on the subsequent photograph. In addition to the expected physical scenes, remarkable optical effects were imprinted on the photographs. His camera had been sent to Kodak and certified to be in good working order. The photographs were also sent to Kodak specialists to determine what kind of picture-taking error had transpired. ....
Over a fifteen-year period, out of 9,000 photographs taken 5,000 contained easily distinguishable anomalies. During all of this time, his only intention during the picture-taking process was "to reveal God's universe."
In a series of studies I carried out with this man, two cameras were utilized. One camera was sensitized by the man, the other was not. Both were mounted on a single tripod with a single shutter release. Standard Kodak color film and standard Kodak processing were used, and the man was never allowed to touch the film during loading or unloading.
Most photo pairs showed very significant differences. The photos from the sensitized camera would often show one or more people in the frame as somewhat transparent over a portion of their body so that objects behind them could clearly been seen through the transparent (translucent) portion. However, the photos from the unsensitized camera showed their bodies fully formed and opaque as one would expect. In other single camera experiments, the opaque lens cap was placed on the sensitized camera, but remarkably clear photographs THROUGH this opaque barrier were still obtained.
This man appeared to be able to sensitize any camera merely by keeping it close to his body for several days.
After he had fully sensitized a camera (or charged it up with his subtle energies), it could be passed to someone else to take the pictures. Some anomalies would continue to appear on the photographs for the next hour, after which time period no further anomalies would appear.
Certain deductions can be made from this study.

(1) Some kind of radiations exist in nature that can travel through materials that are normally opaque to visible light.
(2) Such radiations, which may be normally present in nature, can be imaged via the camera onto the film by some quality inherent in this man's energy field, and register an imprint at the physical level of the silver halide grains of the film.
(3) Some "energy soaking time" is needed for the camera to acquire this anomalous capacity after placing it in the special energy field of this man.
(4) This acquired anomalous capacity leaks away with a time constant of about l hour - unless continually "pumped" by the energy field of this particular man.

Experiment B: Feedback of Biological Radiation

Known in Asia since ancient times, acupuncture points have been used for treating bodily dysfunction. Under research, the points have been found to have electrical characteristics that differ from the surrounding skin, even though no striking histological difference at the physical level has been detected. Variations in mental alertness are known to cause significant changes in the electrical characteristics of the skin points.
Some Soviet researchers found that mental concentration, or "directed-mind" techniques, can be used to increase the "effective" voltage difference between similar points on the left and right sides of the body - an "effective" increase, for example, being a mind-directed shift from 50 milivolts to 500 milivolts.

With the help of two of my Stanford students during the mid-1970s, I designed and built a detector to register such mind-directed energy from the body. The detector included a pulse counter that could measure energy shifts and which could be displayed on an oscilloscope.
The detector has a sandwich-like form. The "bread" of this sandwich is two parallel planar dielectric surfaces. The "meat" of the sandwich is a gas isolated between the two surfaces. An external voltage, generated by a high voltage power supply, powers the device to a level BELOW the electrical breakdown voltage of the gas. There is thus no sustained discharge through the isolated gas, but small microavalanches of electrical charge form in it due to the ambient electric field. These small electrical charges can be thought of as micro lightening bolts. By adjusting the sensitivity of the pulse counter to NOT count the largest microavalanches, a background or baseline profile of ZERO counts could be selected. This reduced static capacitive effects.
With such a baseline, a human's intentionality effect on the functioning of the device could be determined via an increased number of counts during a five minute test period.
After showing that the important human interaction with the device were dynamic, mind-directed effects rather than static capacitive effects, a variety of experiments were carried out to reveal key features of the dynamic effect. For example, in one kind of experiment the subject stood or sat closer to the detector for a five minute period with the hands placed around but not touching the detector, and then mentally focused their intention on increasing the count rate. The total counts for the period were then recorded and tabulated.
Over the three year period between 1977 and 1979, several thousand different tests under a wide variety of different conditions were conducted with several dozen different subjects. Some results were extremely revealing and encouraging [1].
On days when the device was working well, anyone could produce a positive result, young and old people, students, healers and nonhealers, etc. The results were analogous to psychokinetic influencing of the detector. But from a purely subjective viewpoint, those with an high ability to focus their attention produced an higher ratio of success while those with only a small focusing ability produced a lower ratio. Also, subjects with previous experience using the device generally produced higher count rates than new subjects.
On some occasions, usually lasting for one to several days, no one was able to produce an enhanced count rate, and we were unable to determine why. No correlation was found with moon phases, rain storms, etc. No consideration has as yet been given to geomagnetic field activity. On still other occasions, great effort was required to produce enhanced count rates, and at these times some successful subject failed.
Extensive studies were carried out to determine if this human form of subtle energy could be shielded from the device, or if an alternate inanimate energy source could also trigger it. The answer to both questions was essentially "No."
It is reasonable to conclude from directed-intention study that mental focusing and concentration, under certain conditions, is an important subtle energy factor with regard to overall human functioning. This factor probably has far-reaching implications, and its existence is being confirmed by other researchers.
For example, in 1991 researcher H. Motoyama reported in a significant experiment [2]. Two subjects, one with marked psychic ability, the other not psychic, were placed in separate rooms shielded by concrete walls lined with lead.
The psychic concentrated on the other person while Motoyama monitored some of his body functions. Remarkable changes were noted regarding pulse rate, blood flow, skin resistance and respiration during the concentration period of the psychic. Since the two rooms were well shielded against information transfer via physical energies, the effects on the biology of the second person appear to require some non-physical energy involvement.

Experiment C: Large Voltages in the Body of an Exceptional Subject

The third experiment was carried out primarily by Elmer Green and his associates at the Menninger Clinic and involved a simulated healing experiment using an accomplished healer in a specially designed "copper wall" environment [3, 4].

Wired up to a variety of electro-physiological instruments, the healer either stood or sat on a framework placed within four large, square copper walls. The framework was electrically insulated. The four copper walls were placed in front, behind, above and below the healer, and the healer was centered inside. Each of the four walls was attached to electrically isolated electrometers that simultaneously recorded any changes in voltages of the walls.
Likewise, the healer was attached to other measuring equipment, and an electrode on the healer's ear lobe recorded the time variation of her body voltage.
A number of affects were noted as the healer attempted to extend energy. Principally among these effects, it was observed that instead of the usual 10-15 millivolt baseline (which usually includes a 1 millibolt ripple), her body voltage often plunged 30 to 300 VOLTS, and then returned to baseline in 0.5 to 10 seconds. This large body voltage pulse was astonishing in that it was 100,000 times the normal, and, equally astonishing, smaller correlated pulses appeared on each of the four copper walls.
Additionally, in a single 30 minute healing session, the measuring equipment recorded FIFTEEN of these anomalously large pulses.
Based upon a theoretical multidimensional model, a working hypothesis that might help conceptualize the extraordinary voltage behavior of the healer's body is as follows:

(1) A subtle energy pulse is emitted from some unknown location of the body;
(2) The subtle energy structure of the body responsible for this pulse is somehow coupled to the physical body structure so that a transduced effect materializes at the physical level. This effect extends outward from the body and is echoed in the copper walls as measured by the electrometers simultaneously recording any voltage changes in the walls.
(3) Since the pulses were measured on the healer's body and simultaneously on the copper walls, it is necessary to propose that a pulse of magnetic vector potential is generated from this transduction. This pulse can be referred to as Pulse A.
(4) Within the physical realities of standard electrodynamics, Pulse A generates an electric field, now referred to as Field E. Field E is of a specific shape that grows to a maximum extent, then reverses itself, finally shrinking to zero.
(5) Such an electric field effect would cause the ions of the local body electrolyte to separate and produce an electric charge dipole. This first expands to a maximum extent and then collapses back to zero after a short time.
(6) It would be this charge dipole that creates the large voltage swing at the electrodes on the healer's ear and upon the copper walls.

Based on the conceptual picture emerging from experiment outlined above, this author developed a quantitative mathematical model of the process apparently involved and compared it with the experimental data. It was found that of the fifteen extraordinary pulses, thirteen of them had the same origin in the healer's body - the lower abdomen and the frontal area of the body. This location is consistent with the "second chakra" point known in acupuncture, and sometimes referred to as the "Dan Tien" or the "Hara" point.
The electric dipole length (or pulse) was predicted to be very large, extending from the ear (as the negative charge end) to the feet (as the positive charge end). However, only a very small electric current flow was required for a very short time to achieve this result (pulse?).
As a result of this important study, it can be seen that the large electric voltage pulses appearing at the physical level of the measuring devices are resulting from some kind of correlation with the subtle energy level manifestations. The subtle energy level manifestations themselves are not directly observable, but they set into motion electric shifts that can be physically measured.
This author postulates that a vector potential exists between the subtle energies and the physical electric energies, and that the vector is probably magnetic:

Subtle Energies <-> Magnetic vector <-> Electric Energies

The magnetic vector potential plays a special role in nature as the "bridging" element between the subtle domains and the physical domain. The existence of the magnetic vector potential yields the successful quantitative connection in the physical domain of the activity of the subtle energy pulses involved.

With regard to Experiment B, it is interesting to consider that if the human emits bursts of subtle energy toward the gas discharge device, these will manifest at the physical level as bursts of A in the device. This then yields pulses of increased E in the gas, and which will then drive subthreshold electron microavalanches so that they become large enough to register as superthreshold counts.
With regard to Experiment A, it is also interesting to consider that if the man's strong subtle energy field produced a patterned A distribution of appreciable magnitude, then the time-variation of this would yield an E-distribution over the film. In keeping with this, it is known in the photographic film industry that electric fields will produce silver halide grain development in the film - EVEN IN THE ABSENCE OF VISIBLE LIGHT.

Tentative Conclusions

Based on a significant amount of experimental evidence emerging from numerous researchers, it appears that the physical domain is interconnected with a "subtle energy" domain. Although not directly measurable in physical terms, the actions of the subtle energies produce physical activity that is measurable in physical terms. For this to occur, it would seem that a "magnetic vector potential" of some kind must exist, via which the activity of the subtle energies is transduced into measurable physical events.
A theoretical model can thus be postulated, showing that body functions may have two, not just one, "paths." The first path would consist of familiar physical conditions; the second path would consist of subtle energy conditions. Mind/consciousness would appear to have threshold connectivity between the two paths.
The theoretical equation would be something along the following lines:

[ Body
[ Direct Body Electric
[ Space/Time<->Physical<->Monopole. . . .
[ Structure Chemistry Fields .
[ . .
[ . .
[ . Body Higher Than
[ BODY Magnetic 4-D
[ FUNCTION Vector <<-->> Subtle Energy
[ . Potential Fields
[ . .
[ . Body .
[ Frequency Body Magnetic .
[ Domain <->Etheric<->Monopole . . . . .
[ Structure Chemistry Fields

It is important to understand that the fragmentary data described in this paper do not constitute satisfactory proof of the philosophical perspectives expressed by the various equations. Any individual piece of data is contestable for a variety of scientific reasons. However, taken as a whole, the sum is compelling circumstantial evidence that nature does, indeed, function largely as indicated by the equations. And each equation given in this paper is correct at some level of functioning.
The body of experimental data regarding the probable existence of "subtle energies" is growing more appreciable as time moves on. The idea is taking shape that the four physical forces, correct within what they refer to, are not sufficient to explain all of Nature's phenomena, especially regarding mind and consciousness.


1. Tiller, W.A., "A Gas Discharge Device for Investigating Focused Human Attention." JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC EXPLORATION, 4 (1990), 225.
2. Motoyama, H., THE CORRELATION BETWEEN PSI ENERGY AND KI. Tokyo: Human Science Press, 1991.
3. Green, Elmer E., P.A. Parks, P.M. Guyer, S. L. Fahrion and L. Coyne, "Anomalous Electrostatic Phenomena in Exceptional Subjects." SUBTLE ENERGIES 2 (1993) 69.
4. Tiller, W. A., E.E. Green, P.A. Parks and S. Anderson, "Toward Explaining Anomalously Large Body Voltage Surges on Exceptional Subjects: Part I, The Electrostatic Approximation." JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC EXPLORATION, 9 (1995) 331.
Other References
Tiller, W.A., "Towards A Future Medicine Based on Controlled Energy Fields." PHOENIX 1 (1977) 5.
Tiller, W.A., "What Are Subtle Energies?" JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC EXPLORATION, 7 (1993) 293.
Tiller, W.A., "Toward Understanding Living Bio-Magnetophoto-electrochemical Systems."

Books by William Tiller, Ph.D.


After receiving his doctorate (1955) in physical metallurgy from the University of Toronto, Dr. Tiller spent nine years at Westinghouse Research Laboratory conducting theoretical and experimental investigations into the detailed physics of the freezing processes of a wide range of materials.
He joined Stanford University (1964) as professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and has been Emeritus Professor since 1992. During this period, and continuing, he has been consultant to government and industry in the fields of metallurgy and solid state physics.
He has published more than 250 scientific papers, three technical books and has five patents issued. He was elected Fellow to the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (1966), held a Guggenheim Fellowship (1970-71), and was Distinguished Visiting Professor, School of Engineering, University of Delaware (1981-82). In 1982, he received the Humanitarian of the Year Award from the International New Thought Alliance of Churches, and in 1996 received the J. G. Gallimore Award For Innovative New Research from United States Psychotronic Association (USPA).
Alongside his illustrious work in conventional science, Professor Tiller has had a long-term interest in anomalous and exceptional energies, psychotronics, Kirlian effects, healing, modes of consciousness and psychoenergetics. Within a conceptual framework that incorporates all of conventional science, he has devoted significant efforts to developing theoretical modeling to understand this combined "subtle energy" class of seemingly strange phenomena.
He is currently devoting effort to the development of reliable instrumentation for the detection and study of "subtle energy" fields in nature. He has published over seventy papers regarding these novel efforts, and one book in the psychoenergetics area. He is a Founding Director of the Academy of Parapsychology and Medicine (California) and the Institute of Noetic Sciences, is formerly a Director of the World Health Trust (England), and Associate Editor of the JOURNAL OF HOLISTIC MEDICINE.
Many scientists and leading-edge thinkers recognize that Prof. Tiller's work bridges the so-called conventional and non-conventional realms of scientific inquiry, and that his work has opened up well-founded scientific criteria for pursuit of inquiry into the latter. As he indicates, "What we can see with our eyes comprises less than ten percent of the universe. The real power sustaining the architecture of the ten percent is the energy contained in the unseen ninety percent."
Prof. Tiller's forty years of research in subtle energies and psychoenergetics has recently been brought together in his latest 1997 book SCIENCE AND HUMAN TRANSFORMATION: SUBTLE ENERGIES, INTENTIONALITY AND CONSCIOUSNESS.
Here, a scientific model of the Unseen is presented from many different aspects, in both lay language and scientific mathematical presentation. This new book is an outgrowth of his exploration of the intricate interrelationships between the internal and external energy environments of nature and human organisms.
His theoretical model postulates that nature expresses itself via many other "subtle" dimensions than the physical and the simple cognitive domain referred to as "space/time." Because of these other dimensions, potentials of substance and radiations exist from these subtle domains for enhanced interactions with the physical domain in ways that can significantly add to our present knowledge.