TWM 

BELL'S THEOREM 
Nick Herbert
BELL'S THEOREM PROVES PHYSICAL REALITY MUST
BE NONLOCAL. Physics concerns itself only with outer experiences not inner and the primary physics Story About Appearances is Quantum Theory which describes without error the complete range of Quantum Facts. A particular class of quantum facts concerns the EPR experiment (named after Einstein, Podolski and Rosen) in which two quantum particles A and B which were once together fly apart and are measured at two distant locations A and B. In the Quantum Theory, observer A's choice of
what kind
of measurement to make on particle A instantly changes the state
description
of particle Ba general feature of quantum theory called "quantum
phase
entanglement". In the theory a particle is represented by possibility
amplitudes
and relative phases. When the particles separate, so do the amplitudes,
but the phases of particle A remain entangled with the phases of
particle
B. Any action on Asuch as an observationchanges not only A's phases
but the phases of B as well. But this nonlocal connection only exists in (the admittedly powerful) Theory. In Appearance (the quantum facts) no action taken by observer A ever leads to an observable effect (fasterthanlight or otherwise) at location B. Thus the quantum facts do not show an FTL (voodoo) connection. In line with the apparent unobservability of instant links Quantum Theory itself despite its internal representation of nonlocal links never allows these links to surface as observable phenomena. The Theory shows an instant connection twixt A and B; the Appearances do not. What about Reality? Can we tell a story about invisible influences behind the phenomena that leaves out the instant connection or must a nonlocal connection be necessarily present in every Quantum Realityevery story we can tell about the underlying causes of all possible experiments on separated particles A and B? Irish physicist John Stewart Bell considered the EPR system and showed with a devilishly clever proof that all conceivable models of Reality must incorporate this instant connection. What Bell showed is that despite the fact that Relativity prohibits instantaneous connections, despite the fact that no such connections have ever been observed either in EPR experiments or any other, despite the fact that quantum theory itself predicts no observable instant connections, despite all these considerations from Fact and Theory, the Reality of the EPR particles is such that their initial contact must create an instantaneous voodoostyle link between them below the level of Appearances. Bell's Theorem (Reality must be nonlocal) is remarkable for several reasons: 1) it is a mathematical proof, not a conjecture or speculation; 2) it is a proof about Reality not Appearances. How often does one find such a window into the nature of reality? 3) it is counterintuitive: why should everywhere local facts need to be supported by a nonlocal reality? For more technical information about Bell's Proof, See "Quantum Reality". For a good account of Bell's life and deeper quantum issues see Jeremy Bernstein's excellent account composed from interviews with Bell shortly before his death. Nick Herbert devised the world's shortest proof of Bell's theorem (Nick's Proof: versions One and Two) . Goldberger, Horne and Zeilinger (GHZ) generalized the twoparticle EPR experiment to three or more particles and came up with what is probably the most elegant proof (using only eigenstates: quantum theory's deterministic subset) of nature's necessary nonlocality. usps://usa.ca/95006.bouldercreek/box261/nick.herbert

