Maori owned 66,400,000
Land Claims Ordinance stated that lands not actually
occupied or used by the Maori belonged to the Crown. This contradicted
Article 2 of the Treaty
Governor Fitzroy dropped the pre-emption clause in
2 of the Treaty and allowed private sales to take place.
Governor Grey abolished the Protectorate Department,
which had the responsibility of protecting Maori rights, and gave the
Zealand Company the exclusive right of pre-emption.
Maori ownership of land
to 34,000,000 acres.
In the 12 years
of the Maori owned land had been lost.
Saw the establishment of Provincial Government. Only
males over 21 who had individual title to property of a certain value
entitled to vote. Very few Maori males were able to do so.
Te Ati Awa Chief Teira sold the Governor land at
without seeking the agreement of the other chiefs who had an interest
the land, especially the Senior Chief Wiremu Kingi. This was a breach
the Treaty's land guarantee.
Maori Owned Land reduced
to 21,4000,000 acres
Native Lands Act:
Designed to break down Maori communal ownership of
A land court was set up to individualise title. An ammendment to the
meant that Maori owners could sell to anyone. This breached the
clause in Article 2.
Governor Grey invades the Waikato region.
Suppression of Rebellion Act:
No right to trial before imprisonment. Its intention
was to punish "certain aboriginal tribes of the colony" for rebelling
New Zealand Settlement
Over three million acres
of Maori land was confiscated to pay for the war.
Native Reserves Act:
All remaining land reserved for Maori use was put
Native Land Court
Designed to determine ownership. Maori owners had to
spend many months in town waiting to have their cases heard. If they
not show up they lost the right to the land. This caused many of them
build up huge debts and they had to sell a lot of their land to pay for
them. Maori owners had to pay for any surveying work that had to be
Many Maori owners sold land rather than go through the humiliating
of the Land Court sitting.
Between 1865 and 1875, 10
million acres of land was lost by Maori
Oyster Fisheries Act:
Prevented Maori from fishing commercially. Maori
fishing enterprises at the time went broke and they had to sell land to
meet their debts.
Maori Representation Act:
Four Maori seats in Parliament erstablished. A
to Pakeha fear that Maori who by now had a majority under the property
qualification clause of the 1852 Constitution Act in a number of
could gain a majority in Government.
The Native Schools Act:
Was passed extending the parameters of the 1858 Act.
These schools would assist in the process of assimilation.
A new Maori version of the Treaty was requested by
Government. "Kawanatanga" in Article 1 is replaced by "nga mana Katoa o
A Government stipulation that instruction in Native
had to be in English.
The Treaty is declared a nullity by Judge
in the Bishop of Wellington v Wi Parata case. Legislation was
to allow direct purchase of Maori land. This was another breach of
An amendment by Grey of the Native Land Act made it
for small farmers to get Maori land. The Government sabotaged the
that was set up to investigate land confiscation in Taranaki.
Peace Preservation Bill:
One year's hard labour for Maori people who refused
leave their abodes.
Maori Prisoners' Act:
200 Maori arrested in Taranaki for preventing the
of confiscated land. Kept in prison for an indefinite period without
West Coast Settlement Act:
Any Maori in Taranaki could be arrested without a
and jailed for two years with hard labour if they built anything or in
any way hindered the surveying or property.
Native Reserves Act:
The control of Maori reserves is taken over by the
2500 troops invade Parihaka and Te Whiti the prophet
Native Lands Administration Act:
Rejected the traditional right of communal ownership.
Maori land was given over to small groups of trustees who had the right
under this act to sell it.
Te Whiti was re-arrested (under the West Coast
Act of 1881) without warrant, charge or trial and jailed for three
Native Land Act:
Large scale direct purchase of Maori land. Bastion
Auckland appropriated for defence purposes.
Maori Land stood at
The Native Department was abolished.
Native Land Purchase and Acquisition Act:
Designed to speed up the purchase of Maori Land.
Advances to Settlers Act:
Low interest loans made available to white settlers
buy land from the Government.
Native Land Court Act:
Names on the Certificate of Title were deemed
or beneficial owners.
Validation of Invalid Land Sales Act:
Any Pakeha misdealings concerning Maori land were
Maori Land Settlement Act:
Maori land was put under the control of Land
There was no Maori representation. The settler population had increased
and so had their desire for land.
92 Maori in Taranaki were arrested for ploughing land
in protest of Public Trustee control of their lands.
An act re-affirms Judge Prendergast's 1877 ruling
the Treaty is a nullity.
The abolition of Native Councils (they had slowed
the Government's land purchases).
There were amendments to the Native Land Act
forced further sales of Maori land.
Tohunga Suppression Act:
Penalties were imposed on
(experts in Maori medicine and Maori spirituality).
Maori could no longer use the
system for adopting children. The Act was to prevent the adoption by
of Pakeha children.
Maori land now amounted
Maori servicemen who returned after WWI were not
for the benefits of the Rehabilitation Scheme. The scheme was only
to Pakeha servicemen.
Maori land reduced to
Wiremu Tahopotiki Ratana was snubbed when he took
grievances to King George.
Ratana M.I.'s present petition with 30,000 signatures
calling for ratification of the Treaty. It was ignored. Maori received
half the unemployment benefit given to the Pakeha. A single Maori
7s 6d and a Pakeha 15s.
Maori land reduced to
Maori Affairs Act:
If Maori land was not occupied or being used then it
was declared "waste land'' and taken by the Government.
Town and Country Planning Act:
Prevented Maori from building on their land. This
many Maori to move from rural areas to the cities.
The Hunn Report:
Jack Hunn, a top-ranking civil servant, recommended a
stepping up of the assimilation process.
Maori Affairs Amendment Act:
Maori trustee had the right to ask individuals to
their interest to the Government. Land owned by fewer than four Maori
had to be put under one title.
Maori freehold land subject to rates.
Maori land reduced to
The Crown created a property right with the
of a fisheries quota system. A breach of Article 2.
Maori Fisheries Act:
Re-definition of an important part of Article 2,
guarantees Maori "full exclusive possession of the Lands and
Forest, Fisheries''. By 31st October 1992 Maori are granted 10% of
the fishing quota. The Government has re-defined full as 10%. A further
breach of the Treaty agreement.