From "Water Memory" effects to "Digital Biology"...
Do it yourself experiment
Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to inform you that we have developed a simple method to demonstrate what has been dubbed "the memory of water" (we would rather name it now "information of water"). This method is based on the skin reactivity of rabbits or guinea-pigs. It implies 3 dilutions, one IV injection and 4 to 6 intradermal injections. Performing this expt on 4 animals takes more or less 1/2 day of work. 

Aim of the cooperative research
As a start, we wish to demonstrate, with the participation of as many laboratories world-wide as possible, the existence of biological activity in a solution so diluted that the number of physical molecules is too low to otherwise induce an effect. 

Our starting hypothesis
The activity of a substance in solute state not only depends on its concentration but also on what appears to be the "information" of the water molecules in the solution. 

The laboratories having reproduced this first experiment will then be provided on their demand with other protocols demonstrating even more ambitious part of our work, such as testing biological activities beyond Avogadro or using digitally recorded molecular signals. 
Rationale of the experiment
Bradykinin (BK) or histamine (H) are known to be ineffective below 0.1 µM. Thus let's consider a solution of BK or H at 1pM (1 x 10-12 M), that is, 5 log after the last active dilution. This solution has been prepared in a standard way, i.e. by dilution with gentle agitation.
We split this 1pM solution into two tubes A and B, and vortex the tube B for 15 sec.
Solutions A and B are then injected intradermally into guinea-pig or, even better, rabbit skin.
While solution A does not, as expected, show any activity, solution B initiates a reaction close to that observed with 0.1 - 1 µg/ml BK or H. 

This would appear as a "magical" trick, indeed incomprehensible according to classical structural biology. Yet the explanation is simple: at 10-12 M, there are not enough molecules (6 x 108 molecules/ml) to activate directly the vascular receptors, yet enough to "inform" water upon agitation.
A strong agitation seems to trigger the transmission of the molecular signal to perimolecular water. No effect of agitation is observed after 10-15 M (600,000 molecules/ml). 
As an image, we could refer to the sound produced by a piano: the resonating box is there to amplify the signal emitted by the strings which would otherwise be barely audible.
The perimolecular water molecules seem to act in about the same way. 

Jacques Benveniste
Didier Guillonnet

December 1998

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